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27

The answer is right on the 警視庁 (metropolitan police department)'s website. Basically it says that it is common to use foreign words as-is if there is no similar cultural counterpart, using sumo and kabuki as examples. Koban is an unfamiliar idea in most cultures, so that's why they decided to go with using "koban" as is. The koban system has been introduced ...


26

First of all, let me assume: You're only interested in the simple four operations (+, -, *, /) and brackets ( ) Multiplication and division have higher priority, e.g., 1 + 2 * 3 is 7, not 9 Of course you want to make the reading unambiguous, taking brackets into consideration So we want to read something like 1 + 3 * (4 - 1) (=10) but nothing more ...


24

According to this page, the following types of characters are allowed in names: 名づけ(命名)に使える文字と記号 ひらがな(ゐ・ゑも含む) カタカナ(ヰ・ヱも含む) 「ー」(音をのばすときに使う。例:リリー、サリー) 「ゝ」(一つ前の字の繰り返しのとき使う。例:なゝえ) 「ゞ」(一つ前の字に濁音を付けて繰り返しのとき使う。例:みすゞ) 「々」((一つ前の漢字の繰り返しのとき使う。例:奈々) So that's hiragana, katakana, extension, and repetition marks. Valid examples are given for each in the ...


21

In answer to this question, I'll give my personal understanding, although I can't fully substantiate it. The superiority of kunrei-siki Kunrei-siki is often felt to be a "better" system than Hepburn in representing Japanese. That is because kunrei-shiki mirrors kana usage more closely than Hepburn. This is noticeable in the さ row, the た row, the は row, and ...


21

I share your experience. Sticking straight to the katakana pronunciation below, I have never had the problem of someone not understanding me any more. I believe this is the pronunciation currently taught in Japanese schools. A: エー【HL】 B: ビー【HL】 C: シー【HL】 D: ディー【HHL】 E: イー【HL】 F: エフ【HL】 G: ジー【HL】 H: エイチ【HLL】 I: アイ【HL】 J: ジェー【HHL】 K: ケー【HL】 L: エル【HL】 M: エム【HL】...


20

When being used as a grammatical particle ([助詞]{じょし}), は is pronounced わ (wa), を is pronounced お (o), and へ (which you may not have come across yet) is pronounced え (e). I've never used Rosetta Stone but it seems quite strange that it would not mention this... Information as to the historical reason for this difference between spelling and pronunciation ...


19

You are looking at this from the perspective of someone with a reasonable knowledge of Japanese, but romaji is wider in application than that. It is often read by people who have no knowledge of the language, perhaps not even a desire to learn it. In fact, those people may be the main readers of romaji. The advantage of Hepburn over Nihon-shiki is largely ...


18

In reference to Sawa's request for an example, キャンディ is a case of キャ being used to transcribe English ca. I asked my Japanese teacher exactly this question many years ago. The reply was that the vowel in English candy is higher (in phonetic terms) than the low front vowel in RP English cast. The fact that キャ is palatalised raises the vowel and makes it ...


17

I know very little about Aikido and can only explain general facts about the Japanese language. “Tori” and “dori” in these example are the noun form of the verb toru (取る; take, grab). In isolation, this noun form is read as “tori.” Both Katate Tori and Katate Dori are compound words made of katate (片手; one hand) and tori. However, in Japanese, the first ...


14

As you guessed, it depends on the type of writing and the target audience, and also on the style. In text written for general public, such as newspaper articles, foreign personal names are usually written in katakana. In academic books and papers, it is more common to see names in the Latin script (at least in mathematics and computer science). As for ...


14

They are known as Arabic Numerals, or アラビア数字 in Japanese. As you may notice, 1, 2, 3, etc. were developed by Indian mathematicians and did not originate from ancient Rome. Up until the 14th century Roman numerals were used, but were eventually abandoned in favor of Arabic Numerals.


14

Basically this is very difficult. Real Japanese sentences on the net are mixture of kanji, hiragana, katakana and English alphabet. See Japanese writing system on Wikipedia. Among these, hiragana and katakana are almost "pronunciation symbols" themselves. You can replace them into romaji using this table and you're 80% done. The remaining 20% is a bit ...


13

It is not easy to input the right romaji to find a Japanese word especially when 'ん' is in the middle. In the case of 'onin', you should place an apostrophe after the first 'n' to separate 'on' and 'in' and if you type "on'in", the jisho.org will show it as [音韻]{おんいん}.


12

This is an example of Hepburn romanization, which attempts to represent Japanese according to how it is pronounced. With geminated っち, it's standard to use tch instead of a double c, so instead of "maccha" you would write "matcha" for 抹茶. Similarly, long vowels use a macron (bar) instead of doubling, so "Hatchōbori" instead of "Hatchoobori." 出発{しゅっぱつ} is "...


11

Systems of romanisation which were originally intended to render Japanese in a way that makes it easier for foreigners to pronounce, like Hepburn, will use "shi" and "chi" because those are closer to the correct pronunciation. Other systems, like Kunreisiki, will use "si" and "ti" instead. Which is used where is partly down to what the purpose is - Hepburn ...


11

A small tsu (sokuon) geminates (doubles) the following consonant. In native vocabulary, only unvoiced consonants can be geminated. This includes the さ, た, か, and ぱ rows. A double n as in おんな is not really pronounced the same way as *おっな would be if it were a word. In loanwords that require gemination of other consonants, N tends to use ン, M uses ン or ム, ...


11

Of the two やめろ (yamero) is the bossier one. やめて (yamete) comes across a bit softer; it's basically やめてください (yamete kudasai) minus the ください (kudasai). やめろ (yamero) is actually the imperative form of the verb, hence the pushy sense it can give off. やめて (yamete) sounds like something a girl might say, but certainly isn't restricted to girls;  やめろ (yamero) ...


10

Often the particle は is written "wa" in Latin letters, because は, when used as a particle, is in fact pronounced the same as わ. Of course, は, when it is not a particle, is usually pronounced "ha". を is pronounced お, and therefore sometimes transcribed "wo" and sometimes "o". Similarly, the particle へ is pronounced the same as え, whence "he" or "e". For ...


10

Really, all I can say is 'it depends on the word'. Generally on'yomi (Chinese-derived) readings use おう, while kun'yomi (native Japanese) readings use おお, but there may be exceptions. A note: if う is a verb ending, おう will not be pronounced おお but as お and う separately, as in 追う and 思う. A lot of what I've said also applies to えい and ええ.


10

You're probably working as programmer or accountant, or you won't actually see many people in Japan write in this style, because those slashes are added to reduce misreading possibility in quick handwriting. For what it's worth, I rarely write letters like this myself. Here is a more complete example from the font. Who made it is clearly a programmer (see ...


10

Yes, rōmaji is used by Japanese people, but mainly as design elements. Elementary school children learn to read and write rōmaji in the 3rd grade, and virtually all adults can understand Japanese words written in rōmaji. Latin alphabet often strikes Japanese speakers as cool or modern. You can find Japanese words represented in rōmaji on T-shirts, mugs, ...


10

EDIT: It turned out that OP did not know most kanji have multiple readings in Japanese. He is actually trying to get the reading of words (e.g., 生地 → K, 生卵 → N, 生命 → S, 生霊 → I). For this purpose, a word-based dictionary is needed. There are several open source morphological analyzers that can do the job and more (kuromoji, mecab, Kagome, etc). See also: Is ...


9

Because computers cannot read your mind. When you type "wa", the computer cannot decipher whether you mean わ or は, so it was decided that わ would be the only way. You could argue that you could develop a system to perform 変換 based on context, but I would imagine that any attempt would fail. Also, if you don't like this system, you can always use かな入力 (mainly ...


9

You will find "chi" in the "t" row and "i" column, hence "ti". There are various ways to transcribe Japanese into Latin script. Whether you spell it chi or ti, it is the same Japanese sound: ち. For cha, chu, and cho, it is chi + ya, chi + yu, and chi + yo. You could also spell it tya, tyu, and tyo.


9

I hate to bring anime into this reply but all Japanese people I have met know the pronunciation "zetto", and all of them have heard of Dragon Ball Z. Which in Japanese is "Doragon Bo-ru Zetto". I work in a Junior High School in Japan and whenever students don't understand "zee" if I say "zetto" or even "zeddo" they understand immediately what letter I mean - ...


9

I agree with Matt that there's no fixed standard about which romanization scheme to use. My guess is that it depends on the project, author, term and the author's swing of mood at the moment, just as in any other context of Japanese romanization. [Personal point-of-view] If I were to use a Japanese variable name, I'd use Hepburn-style romanization, because ...


9

This is a difference between historical kana use (歴史的仮名遣) and modern kana use (現代仮名遣い). The kana orthography has been changed over time to reflect newer pronunciations. In this case, the title is written using an older spelling. Take a look at this official cabinet announcement (from 1986) and scroll down to the bottom half. It contains a rather large ...


9

It is likely [同僚]{どう・りょう} which means "colleague"/"coworker".


9

Simply, using Latin alphabet can clearly tell us it's the initial. Also it's shorter. マイケル・ジェイ・フォックス → Is this ジェイ something like "Jay"? マイケル・J・フォックス → It's meant to be the initial! Everyone knows how to read Latin alphabet, so there is very little drawback.


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