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30

First of all, let me assume: You're only interested in the simple four operations (+, -, *, /) and brackets ( ) Multiplication and division have higher priority, e.g., 1 + 2 * 3 is 7, not 9 Of course you want to make the reading unambiguous, taking brackets into consideration So we want to read something like 1 + 3 * (4 - 1) (=10) but nothing more ...


28

The answer is right on the 警視庁 (metropolitan police department)'s website. Basically it says that it is common to use foreign words as-is if there is no similar cultural counterpart, using sumo and kabuki as examples. Koban is an unfamiliar idea in most cultures, so that's why they decided to go with using "koban" as is. The koban system has been introduced ...


24

According to this page, the following types of characters are allowed in names: 名づけ(命名)に使える文字と記号 ひらがな(ゐ・ゑも含む) カタカナ(ヰ・ヱも含む) 「ー」(音をのばすときに使う。例:リリー、サリー) 「ゝ」(一つ前の字の繰り返しのとき使う。例:なゝえ) 「ゞ」(一つ前の字に濁音を付けて繰り返しのとき使う。例:みすゞ) 「々」((一つ前の漢字の繰り返しのとき使う。例:奈々) So that's hiragana, katakana, extension, and repetition marks. Valid examples are given for each in the ...


23

I share your experience. Sticking straight to the katakana pronunciation below, I have never had the problem of someone not understanding me any more. I believe this is the pronunciation currently taught in Japanese schools. A: エー【HL】 B: ビー【HL】 C: シー【HL】 D: ディー【HHL】 E: イー【HL】 F: エフ【HL】 G: ジー【HL】 H: エイチ【HLL】 I: アイ【HL】 J: ジェー【HHL】 K: ケー【HL】 L: エル【HL】 M: エム【HL】...


21

When being used as a grammatical particle ([助詞]{じょし}), は is pronounced わ (wa), を is pronounced お (o), and へ (which you may not have come across yet) is pronounced え (e). I've never used Rosetta Stone but it seems quite strange that it would not mention this... Information as to the historical reason for this difference between spelling and pronunciation ...


15

Basically this is very difficult. Real Japanese sentences on the net are mixture of kanji, hiragana, katakana and English alphabet. See Japanese writing system on Wikipedia. Among these, hiragana and katakana are almost "pronunciation symbols" themselves. You can replace them into romaji using this table and you're 80% done. The remaining 20% is a bit ...


14

It is not easy to input the right romaji to find a Japanese word especially when 'ん' is in the middle. In the case of 'onin', you should place an apostrophe after the first 'n' to separate 'on' and 'in' and if you type "on'in", the jisho.org will show it as [音韻]{おんいん}.


14

A small tsu (sokuon) geminates (doubles) the following consonant. In native vocabulary, only unvoiced consonants can be geminated. This includes the さ, た, か, and ぱ rows. A double n as in おんな is not really pronounced the same way as *おっな would be if it were a word. In loanwords that require gemination of other consonants, N tends to use ン, M uses ン or ム, ...


13

Of the two やめろ (yamero) is the bossier one. やめて (yamete) comes across a bit softer; it's basically やめてください (yamete kudasai) minus the ください (kudasai). やめろ (yamero) is actually the imperative form of the verb, hence the pushy sense it can give off. やめて (yamete) sounds like something a girl might say, but certainly isn't restricted to girls;  やめろ (yamero) ...


12

This is an example of Hepburn romanization, which attempts to represent Japanese according to how it is pronounced. With geminated っち, it's standard to use tch instead of a double c, so instead of "maccha" you would write "matcha" for 抹茶. Similarly, long vowels use a macron (bar) instead of doubling, so "Hatchōbori" instead of "Hatchoobori." 出発{しゅっぱつ} is "...


11

Systems of romanisation which were originally intended to render Japanese in a way that makes it easier for foreigners to pronounce, like Hepburn, will use "shi" and "chi" because those are closer to the correct pronunciation. Other systems, like Kunreisiki, will use "si" and "ti" instead. Which is used where is partly down to what the purpose is - Hepburn ...


11

Really, all I can say is 'it depends on the word'. Generally on'yomi (Chinese-derived) readings use おう, while kun'yomi (native Japanese) readings use おお, but there may be exceptions. A note: if う is a verb ending, おう will not be pronounced おお but as お and う separately, as in 追う and 思う. A lot of what I've said also applies to えい and ええ.


11

You're probably working as programmer or accountant, or you won't actually see many people in Japan write in this style, because those slashes are added to reduce misreading possibility in quick handwriting. For what it's worth, I rarely write letters like this myself. Here is a more complete example from the font. Who made it is clearly a programmer (see ...


10

Often the particle は is written "wa" in Latin letters, because は, when used as a particle, is in fact pronounced the same as わ. Of course, は, when it is not a particle, is usually pronounced "ha". を is pronounced お, and therefore sometimes transcribed "wo" and sometimes "o". Similarly, the particle へ is pronounced the same as え, whence "he" or "e". For ...


10

Simply, using Latin alphabet can clearly tell us it's the initial. Also it's shorter. マイケル・ジェイ・フォックス → Is this ジェイ something like "Jay"? マイケル・J・フォックス → It's meant to be the initial! Everyone knows how to read Latin alphabet, so there is very little drawback.


10

Yes, rōmaji is used by Japanese people, but mainly as design elements. Elementary school children learn to read and write rōmaji in the 3rd grade, and virtually all adults can understand Japanese words written in rōmaji. Latin alphabet often strikes Japanese speakers as cool or modern. You can find Japanese words represented in rōmaji on T-shirts, mugs, ...


10

EDIT: It turned out that OP did not know most kanji have multiple readings in Japanese. He is actually trying to get the reading of words (e.g., 生地 → K, 生卵 → N, 生命 → S, 生霊 → I). For this purpose, a word-based dictionary is needed. There are several open source morphological analyzers that can do the job and more (kuromoji, mecab, Kagome, etc). See also: Is ...


10

Well, as a hint, historically, the first people who'd have any interest in, or practical need for, writing down Japanese in the Latin alphabet weren't Japanese people. See the Nanban trade article in Wikipedia for a good jumping-off point to read about European contact with Japan. I'd bet you dollars to doughnuts that the first Portuguese sailors who ...


9

This is a difference between historical kana use (歴史的仮名遣) and modern kana use (現代仮名遣い). The kana orthography has been changed over time to reflect newer pronunciations. In this case, the title is written using an older spelling. Take a look at this official cabinet announcement (from 1986) and scroll down to the bottom half. It contains a rather large ...


9

Is this a thing ever done in Japanese text If you specifically mean "replacing B/C (and only B and C) with the red/squared emoji 🅱️", then, no, that has never been a thing in Japan. I did not know such a phenomenon until today, and its cultural background (according to this) is not something Japanese people are familiar with. Of course people can read 🅱️🅰...


9

I'm not very familiar with the diffusion process of jujitsu, but the practice to read 術 somewhat like じつ exists(ed) in the traditional Tokyo dialect. Japanese WP says: 「じゅ」が「じ」、「しゅ」が「し」に転訛する。(例)準備→じんび、美術→びじつ、新宿→しんじく、趣向←→嗜好 This is a well-known phenomenon: //u// in Eastern dialects is generally unrounded, so a weakened //ju// could be ...


8

It is likely [同僚]{どう・りょう} which means "colleague"/"coworker".


8

When talking about shi (and absence of si), to say "there is no si but shi in Japanese" is not really correct. The truth would rather be "there is no distinction between si and shi in Japanese". In other words, there is only one such "voiceless sibilant" phoneme in Japanese, which is usually written as /s/, and さしすせそ are phonemically parsed as /sa si su se ...


8

Seeing Ikeno-Ue I'll venture a guess and say that there is no reason why Google Maps hyphenates some place names and not others. Here ノ is the particle の and I would say that hyphenation of 池ノ上 ike no ue based on the Japanese language should be one of the following Ikenoue Ike-no-Ue (or Ike-No-Ue) Ike no Ue (or Ike No Ue) although I'd definitely choose ...


8

There are multiple ways to romanize Japanese, and each one is based on different principles. Some try to represent the phonemes of the language; some try to represent the phonetics (actual pronunciation); others try to represent the way a word is written in Japanese orthography, or the way a word is typed into a Japanese computer. One scheme, called ...


8

This is not a problem of dakuten in general, but is a problem specific to じ, ぢ, ず and づ. There is a bit complicated history regarding the pronunciations of these four characters, and they even have a special name, yotsugana. English Wikipedia has a dedicated article about this topic. In short, the standard Japanese accent no longer retains the distinction ...


8

Responding to the extended discussion in the comments -- Terminology The second vowel is //o// in both 通【とお】り and 東【とう】. (東【とう】り is not a word, so I won't repeat that here.) When you're talking about vowels, you're talking about pronunciation. The second kana is either お or う, but in both 通【とお】り or 東【とう】, the vowel is //o//. Kana spellings This gets ...


7

In English, people often capitalize every word in a foreign title, and you can apply that rule without talking about Japanese specifically at all. Of course, different people use different styles! Here's what I'd do: Capitalize everything except function words (particles, conjunctions, etc.). If a function word is the first word, or if it's long (6+ ...


7

I think there are no consistent rules for transcribing foreign words to katakana and thus the task of reverting the process is even harder. The most obvious hurdle will be deciding whether ラリルレロ should be La Li Lu Le Lo or Ra Ri Ru Re Ro (or something completely different), e.g. レディー is either lady, or ready. Moreover, there are many source languages, like ...


7

As @Nothing at all notes, this depends on the word. On'yomi always use -OU for long O sound and kun'yomi almost always -OO.1 However, the real problem here is that you are being asked to reconstruct hiragana from Hepburn romanization. In general this is impossible, because Hepburn romanization conflates certain hiragana spellings. (There are romanization ...


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