Let's look at each of your sample sentences in turn.
Breaking this down word for word:
eating-thing → food
deliciousness (as a degree or amount)
[copula]: is, are
Putting this together:
Is food [a degree of] deliciousness?
That doesn't make a lot of sense, ...
Let's look at your sentences and explore their meaning.
This says, "Is the food tastiness?" I don't think that's what you want to say.
This could possibly work, but it still sounds a bit off to me. (But, I'm not a native speaker.) What strikes me odd here is the use of the particle が. Had you written it as
No, you cannot use it like this.
です is used after い-adjectives or な-adjectives or nouns, making it polite. The non-polite form would be だ or nothing for な-adj and nouns, or nothing at all for い-adj.
The ましょう construct in question is one of the conjugations of Japanese verbs, namely the volitional form in its polite version. The non-polite volitional form ...
They indeed seem to contradict each other. However, the rules described in the preceding pages should not be taken too literally. The book itself offers the following caveat in p286.
As for the examples you copied from p287, the authors probably needed a few ...
It's もわっ…. It's a mimetic word that describes smoke, moisture, smell or something similar started to fill the atmosphere. This person seems to be sweating, so it may be describing the smelly moisture of sweat. Or maybe it's describing this person's "negative aura". Please see the context.
What does むわりと mean?
"Until someday" usually has to be いつか来る日まで or いつか来るその日まで. いつかの日まで is also used, but this is uncommon in my opinion. Alternatively, if you know what will happen on that day, you can use the corresponding verb and say something like this:
何台でもの車を買う is a wrong sentence. Otherwise your chart is okay.
Explanatory の is gender-neutral. You can say 暇があるんじゃないの safely in informal settings, regardless of your sex, when you highly suspect the listener has some spare time.
As your textbook probably explains, の is used to seek clarification. You usually need some context before making a の-ending question.
Do you have time?
(That makes me wonder, ...
If you don’t know whether or not whatever uttered the voice did so in response to the sound, you might say:
If you suspect it did, you might say:
のか in your sentence should be understood along these lines.
In fact, he could have as well said:
In this sentence, のか means that the speaker is guessing at a cause. To translate the sentence, "Perhaps reacting to the sound, I heard a voice." Kind of a gross translation, but essentially the speaker is guessing that the voice they hear is from someone vocalizing in reaction to the referenced sound.
乗る on its own only describes the action of mounting or boarding itself. The "destination" marked by に must be a vehicle (or a boat, a horse, etc), not some geographical location. 東京に乗る or 仕事に乗る does not make sense (although "to ride to Tokyo" is a valid expression in English). 車に乗る does not necessary mean you travel to somewhere; you may ...
You're right that "Gakkou wa doko desu ka" literally means where is the school, but in English if someone said "where did you go to school?" you wouldn't say "second on the left from the butcher's", you'd give the name. Same applies in Japanese.
The same applies to "Kaisha wa dochira desu ka". dochira has multiple ...