10

There is no special symbol for this, but simple brackets () can be used in most cases. They are especially common in interview articles, where the editor has to fix or supplement what was actually said by the interviewee. In case you need to avoid any confusion, you can explicitly say (筆者注:~), (編注:~) or (訳注:~), which mean "author's note", "...


7

The answer is nothing. Japanese does not have a special form for vocative other than nominative (not many languages have), and before the introduction of punctuation, you can just guess it from the context that it is an address. Even today, you hardly see commas and periods in speech balloons of manga, that means you still have to sometimes. And it is not ...


5

Both methods are for emphasizing something, but they are used a little differently. Brackets are used to emphasize important keywords and words with non-standard meanings. Their role partly overlaps scare quotes in English, but Japanese people tend to use them extensively just for highlighting words (example 1, example 2). In light novels, you'll notice ...


4

「話すことができぬでも、頷く(unazuku)ぐらいはできるだろう」 The first part of this sentence is archaic or old-fashioned. This is, of course, used in order to show the story takes place in the past. Let's rewrite the above sentence into a modern one. 「話すことができなくても、頷くぐらいはできるだろう」 It can roughly be translated into "You can't talk, but you can nod at least!", but it seems to me ...


2

I should probably leave it to a native-speaker or someone with a better understanding to answer. But, a quick answer is that when you address someone there's never a particle like は or が or を following. If you see ジョン without a particle or ジョンよ it's most likely direct address. But also, context often makes it very clear that someone is being addressed. ...


1

Japanese generally doesn't have bolding or italics or u̲n̲d̲e̲r̲l̲i̲n̲i̲n̲g̲, just as typographic conventions. There is the 傍点【ぼうてん】, the dots put above (for horizontal text) or to the right (for vertical text), to indicate emphasis, such as [傍]{●}[点]{●}は[句]{●}[読]{●}[点]{●}の一種, but these are difficult to enter using a keyboard -- so the 「various」 『kinds』 〔of〕...


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