37

It's a double hyphen, not an equals sign. One of its uses is when transliterating names that have a hyphen in them. This is to avoid confusion with the extended sound symbol (ー) in Japanese. For example: クロード・レヴィ=ストロース (Claude Lévi-Strauss) Another time when the double hyphen is used is when in the original language, there is a stop in the sound. Your ...


35

The dots, called 傍点【ぼうてん】 (or 圏点【けんてん】), function like italics or underline with the Latin alphabet. They are for emphasis. To see the effect in rōmaji: futatabi kanojo jishin no kuchi kara kiku koto ni naru to wa Update. To answer the question in the comments, 傍点 and ふりがな may be combined (although ふりがな may also be omitted, as in the snippet in the ...


22

「々」is called「同{どう}の字{じ}点{てん}」it is used to repeat 1 previous character. 人人 = 人々 When there are multiple 同の字点 it means to repeat 'n' previous characters. 已及深更、深更後... = 已及深更、々々後... & 令召右大辨、右大辨應召 = 令召右大辨、々々々應召


16

The short answer is 'no' because all questions end in 「か」 in any "official" or "formal" writing. You just know when you see a question. I never even learned how to use a question mark in elementary school. I was surprised to learn that it was regularly used in English when I started learning English in junior high school. In non-official and non-formal ...


15

There's a quick way to know this. The place where a space can be inserted is roughly the same place where ね can be naturally inserted. あらわれでたのはね、 くろマントにね、くろいね、ぼうしのね、さんにんぐみ。 それはそれはね、こわーいね、どろぼうさまのね、おでかけだ。 Actually this structure is known as 文節. Basically, a 文節 starts with a noun/adjective/verb/adverb/etc, optionally followed by one or more subsidiary ...


15

This kind of long dash is sometimes called 2倍ダッシュ, 倍角ダッシュ or ダブルダッシュ when there is a technical reason to distinguish. But untrained Japanese people call this simply as ダッシュ. Some punctuation marks imported from Western countries tend to be wider in Japanese typography, because ordinary characters like kanji are already wider than English letters. As you ...


14

This is supposed to be an iteration mark. This type of iteration mark is usually only used in vertical writing (the traditional layout for Japanese writing). It looks like a big く but is twice as tall. It also exists in Unicode, so I can try to produce it here, although it may not render nicely: や う 〱 (Wikipedia does a better job and has more ...


14

The latter are quotation marks, equivalent to " " in English. For example, the sentence: Mr Tanaka said "Good morning". could be written as something like: たなかさんは「おはよう」といいました。 The former may be a little different in different contexts, but one way it's used is to lengthen vowels when you write words in katakana. So, for example, the word for ...


14

This seems to be an encoding/typesetting issue and the "symbols" are indeed Greek letters Ψ, Π, π that seem to be displayed instead of !, ?, 〜. There is another typographical oddity that suggests something went wrong here: the ch­ōonpu (long vowel marker) ー (for example in はーい or おーいっ) should be vertical in vertical writing, but it appears horizontal here.


10

There is a unicode character for the two-em dash: It is possible to represent any unicode character in HTML Using character escapes in markup. For the two-em dash, it would be &#x2E3A; You could also directly include the character in your markup as ⸺ if your html file has the <meta charset="utf-8" /> meta tag.


10

There is no special symbol for this, but simple brackets () can be used in most cases. They are especially common in interview articles, where the editor has to fix or supplement what was actually said by the interviewee. In case you need to avoid any confusion, you can explicitly say (筆者注:~), (編注:~) or (訳注:~), which mean "author's note", "...


9

In general, typographically speaking, Japanese kana and kanji look much better inside Japanese full-width (or 全角, double-byte) parentheses. Because English characters like 'j', 'y' can extend below the baseline, English (半角, half-width) parentheses tend to be positioned slightly lower than Japanese ones. In some Japanese fonts (such as MS Mincho), this ...


9

This is the first dictionary I've seen use this particular notation, but it appears to be a delimiter between the part of the word composed by the kanji reading and the okurigana. See how for both of the words on the example page you gave, the dot appears immediately before the okurigana begin. 表{あらわ}すー>あらわ.す 表{あらわ}れるー>あらわ.れる Searching for ...


9

「鉤【かぎ】括弧【かっこ】」 is probably what you're looking for. Example: 「は」は係助詞です。 These are used like quotes in English. There's also a doubled-up form that can be used if the text is already quoted. 教師は微妙な表情をして、「『は』は係助詞です。」と言いました。


8

Seeing Ikeno-Ue I'll venture a guess and say that there is no reason why Google Maps hyphenates some place names and not others. Here ノ is the particle の and I would say that hyphenation of 池ノ上 ike no ue based on the Japanese language should be one of the following Ikenoue Ike-no-Ue (or Ike-No-Ue) Ike no Ue (or Ike No Ue) although I'd definitely choose ...


8

段落(paragraph)の区切りです・・・ 毎日新聞のコラム「余禄」では、▲ 朝日新聞のコラム「天声人語」では、▼ を使って、 「ここで段落が変わる」ことを示しています。 (段落が変わるので本来は改行するところを、スペースが限られているため、代わりに記号で表している) 産経新聞のコラム「産経抄」は ▼ で、こんな感じです: また、このページによると、 読売新聞のコラム「編集手帳」では、◆ が使われているそうです。


7

This is the Japanese version of [underlining]{LLLLLLLLLLL}. It's a way of marking a word for emphasis. Update The Japanese name for this is variously 圏点{けんてん} (literally "enclosing mark"), 傍点{ぼうてん} ("off-to-the-side mark"), or 脇点{わきてん} ("on-the-side mark"). The JA wikipedia has a good article about this. Veteran user snailplane commented with this meta ...


7

The position of a dakuten is not as strict as you think. It has to be placed near the top right corner, but it may be moved or rotated according to the font designer's choice. Here are some examples of voiced hiragana rendered with various fonts installed on my PC: When you practice handwriting, please use shapes of a 教科書体 font (the blue one above).


7

This is a double hyphen (=), rendered vertically because the text is written vertically. The mark is called a ダブルハイフン in Japanese. The double hyphen in Japanese is typically usually used to separate hyphenated names from other languages (e.g. the name of anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss would be rendered クロード・レヴィ=ストロース in katakana). From time to time, it ...


7

The answer is nothing. Japanese does not have a special form for vocative other than nominative (not many languages have), and before the introduction of punctuation, you can just guess it from the context that it is an address. Even today, you hardly see commas and periods in speech balloons of manga, that means you still have to sometimes. And it is not ...


6

There "should be" a space between family name (姓{せい} / 苗字{みょうじ}) and the name (名前{なまえ}) actually. This wiki page has no English version but just for your reference: 和字間隔{わじかんかく} I have read this post (姓名{せいめい}の表記法{ひょうきほう}について) and found a nice answer. In articles, writers don't use spaces in character / people names. But in many (maybe all other) ...


6

Translated from NAVERまとめ: With most manga publishers other than Shogakukan (which uses more standard punctuation markers), it is an implicit rule to use spaces instead of the reading and punctuation markers, and users of the internet who are influenced by reading these manga and its lack of punctuation are numerous. In other words, depending on the ...


6

The correct term is rhetorical question, and yes, in this case it is a rhetorical question. Also there is no "why" in the Japanese sentence. Japanese people often use か like that, especially to confirm what has already been said, for example: A: 俺だ! = It's me! B: お前か... = So it's you (huh)...


5

Nope, it's optional. The final particle か indicates that the sentence is a question, so that can be seen as the question mark of Japanese. In fact, adding a question mark when there's already a か can seem redundant. That said, you'll find it used a lot anyway, just because sometimes people want to use it. But it is definitely a casual thing, so you'll only ...


5

I traced the photo to this place in Okazaki (Aichi prefecture): On their web page, they claim to offer the cheapest gas based on a crowd-sourced survey of gas prices elsewhere in Japan. The numbers shown on the signs are based on these survey results: 一番安いガソリンスタンドはここ!皆さんから投稿された全国のガソリン価格口コミ情報をリアルタイムにお届け! Further down the page, it mentions that the prices ...


5

I think that since you are writing in English and provide the Japanese merely as reference, you should use parentheses that are designed for your Latin font. Since you're not relying on using a monospace font in Japanese for rows to align both vertically and horizontally, there's no reason to use monospace parentheses. Japanese doesn't really care about ...


5

Also referred to as 中点{なかてん}, I prefer it over a space because it looks and feels better. Traditionally, Japanese was not written with spaces. So style-wise, I think it is more appropriate to use 中点 instead of space. Nowadays with English and global influence, I am seeing spaces used a lot more, especially in digital text. Secondly, it depends on where the ...


5

The upshot is that you should try to look at the explanatory notes of the dictionary you use and try not to get too attached to a particular notation. Knowing that kanji have a main reading, possibly with okurigana is usually all you need to know to make sense of a dictionary entry. Here are some examples, which are frequently encountered: KANJIDIC The ...


5

It is a matter of memorization. You must already be familiar with the word or phrase to read it properly the first time. However, because other marks for single character repetition already exist, you can be sure that you'll have to repeat at least two characters.


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