28

Yes, absolutely. It's called "style shift." There's a whole book about it, and it's covered in brief in A Dictionary of Advanced Japanese Grammar, but in short: The most common place to hear style shifts is when the background style is polite. In most conversations in です・ます style between native speakers you will hear shifts to plain form. Here are some ...


9

何それ? is not necessarily rude, but it is certainly informal. As such, it should probably only be used with friends or family or in an informal environment. Using it outside those boundaries might risk it sounding somewhat brusque or perhaps even rude. A standard polite alternative is: それは何ですか。 What is that?


8

私は男でも女でもありません is perfectly fine. When you refer to yourself, you don't have to add の人. Even when you refer to someone else, 男/女 tends to sound safe when used predicatively, because you are clearly focusing on one's gender in such a case. It is literary or rude when used as a simple noun (as a subject, object, etc): あの人は男です。: fine (男性/女性です is better ...


7

Assuming you met him privately, yes that was correct. 写真撮ってもいいですか is usually acceptable (especially if you are young), but 写真を撮ってもよろしいでしょうか is never overly polite nor strange.


6

In ancient Japanese, honorific verbs was used by very noble people to refer to their own actions (自尊敬語, "self-honorifics"). But you won't see this unless you learn archaic Japanese seriously. In modern Japanese, even Prime Minister and Emperor use humble verbs properly to refer to their own actions. You may see a high person use humble verbs to refer to ...


5

As a prefix attached to a place, 当【とう】 is basically a formal/polite way to say "our ~". You can use 当 only when you are staff of that place. For example, you can say 当社, 当店, 当会, 当会場, 当施設, 当ウェブサイト and so on, and they mean "our company", "our website" and so on. If you are a visitor, saying 当店 will confuse the shop staff. Instead, you have to say この店, こちらの店 or ...


5

There should be various ways to say what you want to say, but in the situation you mention, I would say "英語に関することで私にお役に立てることがありましたら、いつでもおっしゃってください". It is not super-super polite, but this level is politeness is appropriate for conversation when an employee has a chance encounter with CEO (not when you are asked to teach him as a part of your teaching job - ...


5

If you want to invite someone to do something politely, you can say ~しませんか? For example, 一緒に英語を勉強しませんか?、一緒にご飯を食べませんか? If I were to change your example to a very polite form, I would say もし英語を練習なさりたいなら、メッセージしていただけませんか? I found an interesting page about expressions of request in Japanese. I hope this helps you. http://web.ydu.edu.tw/~uchiyama/conv/kaiwa_n8....


5

許可 ("permission") is an inanimate noun, so it's hard to use an honorific/humble verb if it's a subject. Both 許可がいらっしゃった and 許可が参った sound funny. If you need, it's fine to say まだ御社社長からの許可が来ていません without an honorific verb. You can also use ございます and say まだ御社社長からの許可がございません, すでに社長の許可はございますでしょうか, etc. Alternatively, 許可 is also a suru-verb, so you can say ...


5

お母さん/お父さん and ママ/パパ are the common "first-person" pronouns at least when a child is small. See also: When referring to herself, is there any pronoun other than お母さん when speaking to her children? It's easy to find surveys on second-person usages of ママ/etc (for example this and this), but I could not find a survey directly on first-person ママ/etc. From my ...


5

Asking a question is a very complicated transaction. In theory the questioner is lowering themself - the reason they are asking the question is because they don't know the answer. But the questioner is also imposing on the other: they could be seen to be demanding a response. If the other doesn't know the answer, then they will have to display their ...


4

As was mentioned in the comments above, this kind of language is very sensitive to the situation and could be very opinion based. However, there are some basic phrases that are used pretty universally that could help you as a starting-off point to find more phrases. こら (hey/cut it out - really depends on tone of voice, can be used at the beginning of any ...


4

It's indeed hard to say as there are many ways and it depends on the situation. That said, こら(or コラ) can be used in most situations. All you need to do is regulate how short and loud you say it, depending on severity. When you say こら loud and short, it unmistakably signals you are scolding the other person. It can be used as a joke, but if you say it to ...


4

As you are aware, the かげ in おかげさまで means "shadow." Indeed, the original meaning of おかげさまで was, "Due to the shadow of the deities." The idea is that although the deities may not actively be trying to help you, simply by standing in their shadow you are protected. By extension, the person you are thanking may not have actively helped you, but you are thankful ...


4

I will say like 申し訳ないけど、~なので受け取れないんです。 I think you should explain the reason why you reject the gift. For example, if I am presented a whole cake and reject it, I will say like 申し訳ないけど、ダイエット中なので受け取れないんです。


4

(お)気軽に is a very handy word that conveys the nuance of "feel free to ~" or "take it easy and ~". Adding お make it sound politer. As an aside, メッセージする as a suru-verb sounds a little unnatural (or at least a little too colloquial) to me. Example: 英語を練習したいときは気軽にメッセージをください。


4

Apples to apples, the on-yomi equivalent to 寺{てら} would be 寺院{じいん}. It would be just as unusual to see ご寺院 as ご神社. I think by adding ご, it almost sounds like the 寺院 or 神社 belongs to the person you are addressing, and since neither one is likely to belong to a single person, the construction sounds unnatural. On the other hand the kun-yomi equivalent of 神社 ...


4

If you are working and they are a customer, then お[客]{きゃく}さま is a pretty normal way to refer to someone. Also in many contexts, お[兄]{にい}さん お[姉]{ねえ}さん お[父]{とう}さん お[母]{かあ}さん おじさん おばさん おじいさん おばあさん function as ways to address people when you don't know depending on the person's age. But perhaps the most common way to get someone's attention is すみません ...


4

The first strategy is avoidance. No word for "you" is needed in either of your examples: ご存知ですか。〇〇さんですか。 In other cases, the prefix 御 (お or ご) serves instead. ご出身は?お子さんが素敵ですね! In very rare cases where you actually do need to address someone, if you're being formal, そちら can be used in some cases (especially in contrast with oneself - like "and what about ...


4

When expressions are shortened, they are usually considered less formal and thus sound less polite. This applies to では vs. じゃ: じゃ is less formal and thus sounds less polite (but can sound more friendly). Other common examples include: しては vs. しちゃ, している vs. してる, しておく vs. しとく, してしまう vs. しちゃう, すれば vs. すりゃ, しなければ vs. しなきゃ.


3

As you mentioned, 無理 is bit too straight and I would avoid using it in a conversation with a teacher. I think your first phrase, んん、私はそのような事があまり得意じゃないから、それはちょっと…。すみません。 sounds more polite. Although this phrase is fine in a spoken language, it is bit too vague in a text/email message. I would use 遠慮 instead of 無理 and say something like「誘っていただきありがとうございます。...


3

Unsurprisingly, a sudden switch to polite speech or keigo usually means a psychological distance, anger or a serious mood. However, if a couple uses keigo on a daily basis, that's another story. Traditionally, the concept of gender role was much more prevailing than today in Japan, and it was not uncommon for a wife to use keigo to her husband. In Sazae-san,...


2

Those two are interchangeable. We don't feel any difference if they follow 忙しい. People say differently just by habit. If you need some source => https://mayonez.jp/topic/1036754 (Note we don't have official recieved one, some manner instructor have slightly different policy. Also it depends on region, industry, company who belongs to) what is the direct ...


2

I think you could first address their thank you and then thank them for their compliment, like.. いえいえ、どういたしまして。😊 イラスト、お褒めいただきありがとうございます。 or イラスト、褒めてくださってありがとうございます。 If you just wrote ありがとうございます after どういたしまして, it would be unclear what you're thanking for, so I suggest adding イラスト、お褒めいただき or 褒めてくださって... which is the polite way (honorific/humble ...


2

A Japanese colleague just suggested me this, so I post it as an alternative: 許可の連絡は来ましたでしょうか? I am a bit surprised that it is not ご連絡, but I guess there is some reason for that...


2

In this context, the best is: 申{もう}し訳{わけ}ありませんでした。 I'm very sorry (lit. 'there was no excuse').


2

Taking your suggestions in turn: 「サインをください。」 sounds a bit demanding; it would be understood, but you can be more polite. 「サインをお願いしますか。」 is not natural, as お願いします is referring to your own wish; the か at the end rather thus confuses the nature of your wish. I would probably go with: 「サインをいただけますか。」 -- literally meaning: "Could I get/receive your autograph?". ...


2

For 1, you could use one of the following: 「すみません、もう一度お願いします」 (すみませんが is okay too, but I wouldn't use it by default as it changes the tone quite a bit) 「すみません、上手く聞き取れませんでした」("Excuse me, I couldn't hear (/make out) what you just said." 「すみません、もう一回言ってもらってもいいですか」(You can use 一度 here, too. It's interchangeable with 一回 in this context.) 「...


2

At the very simplest level, regardless of whether talking about your own or others' actions, it is best to stick to ます・です style if you want to be polite. It does not sound stuck up if the politeness is appropriate, but it might sound distant (so, potentially aloof/stuck up as a result?) if you (continually) use it when speaking to friends. That said, it ...


2

First of all, I appreciate that this is a difficult subject, not least because when trying to research it, in English, the terms "honorifics" "respectfulness" "formality" "politeness" etc. often get used differently by different people. I'll try to stick to your terminology, but apologies if I slip up! Your understanding is correct: you can't combine "...


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