パパ, お父さん, 僕, and 俺 are used when the children are young. パパ is less used when they become adults. But お父さん, 僕, and 俺 are still used when they become adults.
Switching their personal pronoun doesn’t always occur, but I think 僕 and 俺 rarely change to パパ and お父さん. パパ and お父さん has an air of viewing their children as kids, though many fathers call themselves パパ ...
A very standard and polite way of asking permission for something in Japanese is to use the construction VERBてもいいですか.
See these answers for reference:
Why でも is used rather than も in this sentence?
貸してもいいですか versus 借りてもいいですか
In your sentence, you could use this construction and say:
質問してもいいですか。 May I ask a question?
For an even more polite version, you ...
This is functionally same as this one: What exactly is this でね construction?
で is usually used to connect to phrases, but when the speaker is too excited about the first part already, s/he wants to affirm it with ね.
verb's te-form is used here, which is equivalent to noun/na-adj. + で (duh)
has です in the middle
The seemingly dislocated です is ...