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17

友達 is kind of an odd case - it's a word in the process of fossilisation. 友 on its own is a valid word, albeit one with a distinctly archaic flavour. -たち was then added to make a collective plural (as Thomas Gross says, not a true 'more than one' plural, but instead a 'group described by this term' plural). Modern speakers, though, would always use 友達 in all ...


16

Roman Jakobson famously said: "Languages differ essentially in what they must convey and not in what they may convey." His point was that every language can sufficiently convey any idea that can be expressed in another language. The difference is that for each language there are some properties that must be specified when an idea is conveyed, even though ...


7

両の貴様は 両の貴様たちは I'm afraid both are incorrect and make little sense. To say "Both of you", you could say: 貴様らは二人とも 貴様らはどちらも 貴様らは両方とも 貴様らは両方 etc. "Both [noun]..." could be 両方のXXが, XXが両方, XXが両方とも, eg: 両方の手が, 手が両方, 手が両方とも, 両手が Both hands (nom.) 両方のカードを, カードを両方, カードを両方とも, カードを二枚とも both cards (acc.) You don't need to pluralise the noun. ...


6

Japanese usually doesn't distinguish between singular and plural nouns. スポーツ is thus both singular and plural insofar as the singular/plural distinction even makes sense when talking about Japanese. There are several other words, which have a ツ at the end, like ドーナツ or ピーナッツ, but only end it a single T. I conjecture that ツ was chosen over ト (as in スポート, ...


6

This is simply because we don't usually use が to express the number of something. I think you already know (子供が)3人いる, (リンゴが)5個ある, (本を)3冊買う and so on are grammatical. Number + counter can work as a noun too (e.g., 3人が集まった), but it's relatively uncommon. In addition, ページ is a tricky counter that means both "n pages" and "n-th page", depending on the context. ...


5

In general, I think ignoring minor items just because they are minor is not a good idea. Whenever you can, you should try to find a generic term which covers everything (3人の男+1人の女→4人の男女, 5匹の犬+2匹の猫+1匹の猿→8匹の動物, ...) In this case, there is a word 刀剣【とうけん】, which obviously covers all 刀, 剣, ナイフ and such. Of course you can just use unspecific 武器 here and explain ...


5

Firstly, 私の猫が大好きです is better. No need for the first 私.(Although not a mistake) In Japanese plural isn't as simple as in English. If the fact that you have more than one is something you REALLY want the other person to know, then best way would probably be to just come out and say how many cats you have in the following sentence, or in the same sentence(...


5

I think the pluralization of 山 is just 山. たち is reserved more for people/animals unless you are personifying inanimate object/things. See: this question. Your sentence is fine to say that you want to live near mountains. If you wanted to express the particular mountain that the person was talking about you could say for example: 私もその山の近くに住みたい


5

If it were 学生 without たち in the first sentence, I would probably interpret it as a single student, until "専門スタッフ3人と学生約20人" in the middle of the article. At that point, I would notice the ambiguity and probably think the article is poorly-written. I assume a 68-page book can be designed by a single college student who majors in design, so the plurality was ...


4

彼ら is definitely gender neutral and 彼女ら can only have females in the group, right? If you think using he in English when the gender is unknown is politically incorrect, then you would still want to worry about 彼ら a bit, too. You don't have to be too strict, but avoiding gender-neutral 彼ら when possible is a good habit. And I think the singular 彼 strongly ...


4

As said in other answers, I don't think you need to worry about making it plural too much. The main reason is that in english, leaving off the plural makes it explicitly singular, but in japanese, leaving off the explicit plural doesn't mean you are explicitly making it singular. You are left with the flexibility to demonstrate that it is plural through ...


4

Where ひとりで/1人で works, 4人で also should work. 4人だけで might be better if you want to indicate 4人 is a small number. A more generic and neutral expression would be 自分たちだけで, but I'm not sure if this is usable for the sentence you have in mind. 孤立して or 隔絶して might be even better in certain contexts (e.g., living in an desert island).


3

「白と黒の犬がいます」 can be ambiguous and can be interpreted either as "There is a black dog and a white dog" or "There is one black and white dog". If you want to more explicitly say "There is a black dog and a white dog", I think you could say 「白い犬と黒い犬がいます」 or 「白の犬と黒の犬がいます」, and for "There is one black and white dog", 「白黒の犬がいます」.


3

Japanese language doesn't have plural form of noun like English. So we can't know how many children are playing in the park in this sentence "子供が公園で遊んでいます". If you want to say "A child is playing in the park", you say "一人の子供が公園で遊んでいます。" If you want to say "Children are playing in the park", you say "子供たちが公園で遊んでいます。".


3

No. I suppose it's a bit like you guys. It serves to make it clear there are multiple children.


3

Although in some contexts 学生 can be plural (in fact the way you propose to change the sentence MAY be read that way), as both @istrasci and @dainichi stated, it could lead to confusion as it could mean either one or many students. Adding the たち confirms that it refers to more that one student and removes this ambiguity. デザイン専攻の学生が記念誌を作成した。 The ...


3

(This is my comment with small changes in wording.) Japanese have some suffixes for nouns which signify plurality such as たち, ら, and ども, and this might be referred to as “some kind of plural declension,” although showing plurality is not required grammatically like English. If your professor was talking about conjugating a verb according to the number of ...


2

Your final question is different from the one in the title. First, ~たち is not built-in. The noun 友 can appear on its own. See here for more information. Therefore, the answer to your last question is no. I want to mention though that ~たち, or suffixes such as ~ら, ~ども, etc. do not mark the plural in the strict sense, but rather an associative. An ...


2

I would use 「~[内]{ない}で」 or 「~の[中]{なか}で」, as in: "they (group B) discussed among themselves" 「彼らはグループ内で相談/議論した。/ 話し合った。」 「彼らはグループの中で相談/議論した。/話し合った。」 "they quarrelled among themselves" 「彼らはグループ内で口論/けんかした。/ 口論/けんかになった。/ [揉]{も}めた。」 「彼らはグループの中で口論/けんかした。/ 口論/けんかになった。/ 揉めた。」 You could also use 「仲間同士で」「メンバー同士で」: 「彼らは仲間同士で/メンバー同士で相談した。/ 揉めた。 etc....


2

It is not that it can't be used with nouns. It cannot be used with anything that is inanimate. Thus, since a picture is inanimate, 絵画たち would be ungrammatical. You should just use 絵画 regardless if it's just one or many. There won't be misunderstandings if the number isn't important, and if it is important, you should specify it, even if the number is general ...


2

Yes, it refers to one or collective one. こちら can be (1) "this one" or "our side" when the other one ("that one" or "their side") is already present in the context, or (2) a polite form of これ or これら. The latter usage wouldn't be decent in your context. So, that こちらの is "this" opposed to the aforementioned.


2

彼ら is definitely gender neutral and 彼女ら can only have females in the group, right? Japanese plurals are (or at least can be) associative. 彼ら means "he and the ones I/we associate with him", just like 田中たち doesn't necessarily designate a group where everybody is called Tanaka, but means "Tanaka and the ones associated with him/her". So 彼ら would usually have ...


2

After poking around I found this webpage with a translation of 'left to his own devices'. To quote the site: (助言や援助を与えないで)人を思うようにさせておく There are possibly other translations that could be used in context, but that seems to be adequate as a general translation. Other specific examples are: あの男は放任しておいたら酒を飲んで死んでしまう If left to himself, he will drink ...


1

“独自{どくじ}に” might fit best. Other possibilities are “自分{じぶん}たちの裁量{さいりょう}で” or “自力{じりき}で”. If you provide us a whole sentence, it would be easier to answer.


1

Well it should really be "lets" or "let me" ,"allow me" when using "ましょう". As in "let me help you with that " You could say "Can I help you with that?" , "手伝いましょうか" and not use a question mark as the "か" indicates that it is a question. But it does not always need this to imply a question. Edit: I would not say the translation is incorrect as it does need ...


1

It is explicit, to state that there are several children.


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