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2

There is no equivalent. One way would be to change the verb where appropriate and make something like 寿司の作り方、漫画の描き方、ボスの倒し方, etc. Or as the other answer said, use a generic word like 方法.


2

When English nintendo website use “How to Charge the Controller”, In Japanese nintendo website use “コントローラーを充電する”. It has no meaning of “how to”, but this is a popular way. You can use “コントローラーの充電のしかた” too. When you google “How to become a teacher?“ in Japanese, you should use “先生 なる 方法” or “先生になるには”.


5

This is an uncommon usage of English infinitive (to + <verb>) known as infinitive of result (as opposed to infinitive of purpose, which is much more common). To translate "only to ~" into Japanese, you usually have to split the clause into two and join them using が, けれど, etc. I did it again, only to fail. もう一度やってみましたが、失敗しただけでした。 I searched everywhere, ...


8

By far the most commonly used expressions would be: 「~~が問題{もんだい}を引{ひ}き起{お}こす」 and 「~~が問題の原因{げんいん}となる」 Neither one would be any better than the other. To introduce a more formal way of saying this, we also say: 「問題は~~に起因{きいん}する」 With this expression, the grammatical subject is the "problem". It is not the thing/phenomenon/person as in the first two ...


2

I would say 第19課 is the most common, as that's what at least three of my textbooks use.


5

You can say one of the following: レッスン19 (common) 第【だい】19講【こう】 (traditional and stiff) 授業19 (make sense but less common) 19番目の授業 is grammatical but sounds like "the nineteenth lesson" rather than "lesson 19". 学課 usually refers to a 'course' rather than individual lessons.


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