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18

I'm a native speaker. When you tell a native Japanese speaker to say these words veeeeery slowly, they would say: きょ、う、し、つ。 (or きょ、お、し、つ。) せ、ん、せ、い。 (or せ、ん、せ、え。) か、ら、あ、げ。 こ、ん、ぴゅ、う、た、あ。 (コンピューター) And if you ask "How many 'sounds' are there in those words?", they would count using their fingers, and say 4, 4, 4 and 6, respectively. So this means so-called "...


17

Here is what I know. If, by "complex rules", you refer to more complex ones than these below, I wish one of the experts here would post an answer. By the way, the nasal sound we are discussing here is called 「鼻濁音{びだくおん}」 in case someone did not know. "Nose-muddy-sound", literally. Since you know the word now, you can hear how it actually sounds on ...


12

Probably you were hearing "velar nasal g" [ŋ], which is an allophone of [g] mainly heard in eastern parts of Japan. In Japanese, [ŋ] and [g] in がぎぐげご are variants (allophones) of the same sound (phoneme), and most people are totally unaware of the difference. If you're not sure what I'm talking about, please read these first: Why doesn't Japanese have a ...


11

Odd readings of 三: looking back in the history I've read here and there that researchers think that the Chinese-derived reading さん was originally borrowed as さむ. This is based partly on the reconstructed Middle Chinese reading of /sɑm/, and partly on the fact that Old Japanese (the stage of the language when most kanji were borrowed) didn't have any ん yet. ...


10

There are some lingering question marks in the initial post and in the other answers regarding why は is read as /wa/ in こんにちは. Other posters have already noted that this は is the topic particle -- which is always read as /wa/. The remaining question is, why is this particle は read as /wa/? The short(ish) answer The answer lies in history. According to ...


10

/h/ is from original *p The Japanese fricative /h/ is reconstructed as coming from earlier *p (a voiceless labial stop; "labial" is a phonetic term for consonants pronounced with the lips). You can read more about this in books or articles about the phonology and phonetics of Old Japanese; Wikipedia mentions it in the "Old Japanese" ...


9

I'm not very familiar with the diffusion process of jujitsu, but the practice to read 術 somewhat like じつ exists(ed) in the traditional Tokyo dialect. Japanese WP says: 「じゅ」が「じ」、「しゅ」が「し」に転訛する。(例)準備→じんび、美術→びじつ、新宿→しんじく、趣向←→嗜好 This is a well-known phenomenon: //u// in Eastern dialects is generally unrounded, so a weakened //ju// could be ...


8

ん has different pronunciations(allophones) depending on surrounding context. [m] before /p/, /b/ and /m/ [n] before /d/, /t/, and /n/ [ŋ] (What some might know as "ng") before [k] and [ɡ]. [ɴ] at the end of prosodic units. This is close to [ŋ] but pronounced further down in the throat. Before vowels, /j/,/w/,/r/,/s/,/z/ and /h/, it is pronounced as a ...


8

[W]hen they say a long vowel, are they deliberately saying one long vowel sound or two of them directly following each other? If this is about phonology, as the tag indicates, the answer will be: two, or neither (at least in Standard Japanese). It's merely two same vowels adjacent by chance when in between two words, or between word stems and inflections. ...


8

Both sounds are allophone and recognized as the same sound but English "f" sounds a foreign accent. Even if the speaker is familiar to English sound, s/he won't pronounce it with English "f" because 外来語 is Japanese.


7

Why is there no /w/ glide in the Japanese? Currently unknown. I cannot find anything definitive describing this. I can't even find when the term first entered the Japanese language, though presumably this can be discovered by spending more time researching. (I am finding tons of pages about the brand of car...) Background According to Shogakukan's ...


7

The glide /gw/ may have been preserved in spelling for native vocabulary until at least the kana orthography reforms, but was completely lost in recent pronunciation. I'm thinking that when the word jaguar was borrowed into Japanese, /gw/ was transformed into /g/ to fit Japanese pronunciation at that time. This actually happened to quite a few words (mostly ...


7

Am I hearing her right? Is she really pronouncing し closer to す? Is there an area of Japan where this kind of pronunciation is common? Does this derive from a dialect/Can this be considered a dialect? いずれも答えはyesです。 但し、アニメの中の表現(発音)ですので、日本人の共通的な認識に基づくであろうとする虚構の世界での話です。また、主人公が東北地方から東京に出てきたことを鮮明にするために、標準的な発音との違いを極端に表現しているものと思われます。 但し、この発音が、日本で言うと、...


6

Phonemes are not really applicable to the Chinese character system, but there was (and still is) indeed a systematic approach to convert most Chinese characters' pronunciation into Japanese on'yomi, based on the system known as fanqie ([反切]{はんせつ}). In this system, any character's pronunciation is reconstructed through a description from two other characters 「...


5

English There's two possible explanations here, and from a little bit of searching, it doesn't seem like anyone knows which is right (or that anyone's really thought much about it). Option 1: Rendaku plus metathesis (as Earthling suggested). te + tsutau > tedzutau > tetsudau. There might be another example of this happening with 舌鼓 - shita + tsutsumi &...


5

A first, I write the initial word in compound nouns ''N1'', and the second word ''N2''.   The original pitch-accent pattern of N2 governs the location of pitch-accent in compound words. If N2 is 3 morae long or longer (1) In case N2 has the accent-fall in the middle, or on the initial syllable of the word, the compound noun keeps the location of N2. [...


5

As you know, the character 'を' is primarily or exclusively used as a postpositional particle to mark the object as in '本を読む,' '字を書く,' while 'お' is widely used as a prefix to a noun in honorific or polite expressions like 'お元気でいらっしゃいますか,' 'お越しいただく,' 'お神籤,' 'お茶' and 'お神酒,' as well as a character to indicate an ‘o’ sound such as in 'おかしい(可笑しい),' 'おとす(落とす),' '...


5

I don't know if @l'électeur's comments were rhetorical or otherwise, but I only find the poem as 若葉 (not 落葉) and written by 蕪村 (not 芭蕉). Here's a more reliable reference from 青空文庫 蕪村には直ちに若葉を詠じたるもの十余句あり。皆若葉の趣味を発揮せり。例、 [...] をちこちに滝の音聞く若葉かな [...] It might not be relevant any longer, but the historical spelling for the お in おちる was just お, and not を, as ...


5

ビーチ for beach is regular, but ケーキ for cake needs some explanation. English //tʃ// and //dʒ// stand as closing consonant are always transcribed as チ and ジ, contrary to //ʃ// in the same position as シュ (with a handful of exception, such as サッシ "sash"). This is perhaps related to rare presence of チュ and ジュ as short syllables in Japanese words. Note that, ...


5

In Japanese phonotactics, high vowels (for Japanese, these are i and u) have a certain property: they become unvoiced when surrounded by unvoiced sounds. Since the "u" in desu is surrounded on the left by "s" (voiceless) and on the right by nothing (nothing is also voiceless), the u is now voiceless. However, this rule is not universally followed; for ...


5

I think this is a variant of the /ai/-to-/ee/ sound change that typically happens with i-adjectives: What does こまけー mean? What is じゃねぇか? What is its original form? わからない vs わかね in My Boss My Hero If I understand correctly, in the past, ちげぇ (also written as ちげー or ちげえ) happened only when ちがう conjugated to the continuative form, ちがい (chigai). For example, ...


5

Origins Modern Japanese 十 read as じゅう comes from older Classical Japanese じふ, originally read as //d͡ʑipu//, in turn from Middle Chinese //d͡ʑiɪp̚//. The basic shift was for the //p// sound in //d͡ʑipu// to lenite (soften) into more like an //f// sound (specifically [[ɸ]], a bilabial, unlike the English [[f]] that is a labiodental). Then, the medial (mid-...


4

With the writing reform almost most instances of the old ぢ・ヂ and づ・ヅ have been replaced with the homophonic じ・ジ and ず・ズ with the following exceptions: ぢ・ヂ and づ・ヅ are still used in words containing a voiced repeated ち or つ (i.e. one that could be written with a voiced iteration mark ゞ), e.g. ちぢむ(縮む) つづく(続く) ぢ・ヂ and づ・ヅ may appear as a result of rendaku (...


4

It is 「[すなわち]{LHLL}」. Same as 「[スタイル]{LHLL}」


4

This is not a direct answer to your question but let me explain about difference between voicing/devoicing vowels and prolonging vowels. There are several ways to pronounce です or the likes. des (1 syllable non-moraic 3 morae, /de/ is longer than /s/, sounds chopped foreign) des: (1 syllable 2 morae, /de/ and /s:/ are even, sounds eastern-dialect-ish) desu ...


4

Is coalescence blocked between syllables? No, coalescence also occurs between syllables, and even involving vowels from different morphemes. In fact it's not clear whether /ou/ was even a diphthong to being with; it's quite possible that it only ever existed as a hiatus. In modern Tokyo Japanese probably only /ai/, /oi/ and /ui/ are actual diphthongs (...


4

I believe it is because the spelling "グワ" is considered as non-standard pronunciation in modern Japanese. There is no publicly defined rule book, but I feel the usage of "グワ" is limited to express noise, yelling or moaning. For example, from 漫画、アニメキャラ弱さランキング from 本日は南風原中で野球の試合です。 突然ですが!・・・・グワシ検定!! What comes into my mind when I think ...


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