39

○ まる OK; correct; yes; supported; available (like ✔; note that the check mark usually means "wrong" in Japanese examinations) masked/censored character (like * in English used to mask characters in certain words; see this) rival horse; second likely to win (horse race; favorite horse is marked with ◎) win; victory; 白星 (when used as opposed to 黒星 = ● =...


17

I've heard sound like: Haru na kimasu. So why is that? I'm going to be very frank here. I think it's because you're not yet able to distinguish intervocalic [ŋ] from [n] and [m]. Incidentally, listening to the passage you link to, I hear [ŋ] in the first, [ɡ] in the second ocurrence of しごと. Do the Japanese not like the g sound (g as in gorilla)? It's not ...


16

I think on reading ヴァ, ヴィ, etc., people usually try to pronounce it differently from バ, ビ, etc., but with varying success. In fact, I think most Japanese that try to distinguish ヴァ and バ pronounce what would be //v// indeed like the Spanish [[β]], a voiced bilabial fricative (or like a combination like [[bβ]]). That seems to make sense since the voiceless ...


14

This is the result of a well known devoicing rule in Japanese. Devoicing means that there is no vibration of the vocal folds. For example, the difference between [s] and [z] is only that [z] is voiced. The IPA diacritic for devoiced phones is a circle at the bottom of the glyph e.g. [z̥]=[s]. Although there is still much dialectal, idiolectal (the way a ...


12

This question has a useful answer by Boaz Yaniv which points out that you may simply be mishearing ひ as し, but it misses the fact that some speakers actually do pronounce these the same way! This merger is mentioned briefly in The Phonology of Japanese, Labrune 2012, p.69: For certain speakers, the opposition between /h/ and /s/ is neutralized before i: ...


10

I assume that you are asking whether native speakers can detect, as a child, whether a vowel is long (マーナ) or short (マナ). The answer is yes, infants can detect it by age 9.5 months according to the paper by Sato, Sogabe, Mazuka, "Discrimination of phonemic vowel length by Japanese infants" American Psychological Association, 2009


9

Latin scholars in Japan seem to like using ウァ instead of ワ. Wikipedia says "一部の外来語で、発音が同じ/wa/であってもワの代わりにウァと書く場合がある。一般には使われないが、ラテン語のvaを古典式発音で音写する際に用いられる(例:ウァレンティヌス、ミネルウァ)。"


9

I've got an old PDF folder full of papers on Japanese, and I managed to pull up two which might be helpful. (I've been on the search for a full detailed phonetic study of Japanese. Add a comment if you know of some other technical resources!). The first, the open paper Processing missing vowels: Allophonic processing in Japanese (Ogasawara and Warner, 2009) (...


8

Another possibility is that the /g/ is being lenited into a voiced velar fricative /ɣ/, as is common between vowels in Japanese. (See "Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: Japanese" by Hideo Okada, or Wikipedia.) Further, since the second /g/ has rounded vowels (/o/) on both sides, it is likely to be somewhat rounded (/ɣʷ/ = /w̝/). The ...


8

Not perfect but you could point out that in "see" the S sound is very similar to the S sound in さ [sa] but different from the S sound in しゃ [sha] or し [shi], and that the EE sound is very similar to the Japanese い [i]. That's how I have introduced it to students in the past. They almost certainly would have never noticed that the beginning S sound of し [shi] ...


8

tl;dr: It varies, but it is usually a weak "b". It varies from person to person, so some may pronounce it like the English "v", but others may use a strong "b" sound. Originally, Japanese had no ヴ character so they used variations of ビ (bi). I think some Japanese might be able to do it, but they find it quite awkward. That's why television is called テレビ (...


8

The people in the video are clearly saying いただきます, not いだだきます or いたたきます. Voiced and unvoiced consonants sound totally differently at least to the ears of native Japanese speakers, and I have never seen a native speaker who has difficulty distinguishing them. You may find this answer interesting: https://japanese.stackexchange.com/a/9333/5010


7

Did 母 undergo ハ行転呼 and then change (back) to /haha/? Yes, it did become hawa (or rather ɸawa) before changing back. You may find citations here.


7

As you have already picked up on, the intonation (change in pitch) of words is vastly different. A common example is the pronunciation of the word 日本. Osaka: Starts high, and pitch lowers にほん【HLL】 Standard: Starts low, and pitch raises and then lowers にほん【LHL】 However this is not the only difference between Kansai-ben and Standard Japanese, ...


7

That is actually a valid question. I did some reading and here's what I found (from Wikipedia): Moraic Nasal Neutralisation, Archiphoneme and Underspecification: Some analyses of Japanese treat the moraic nasal as an archiphoneme /N/. However, other, less abstract approaches take its uvular citation pronunciation as basic, or treat it as a regular ...


6

Update: This might interest you: On the Phonological Derivation and Behavior of Nasal Glides (R. L. Trigo Ferre, 1988). (PDF available here, I assume legally.) I claim that nasal ‘absorption’ occurs when the occlusion of a nasal stop is removed or weakened considerably to the point where it is a glide. A nasal glide without any place features, [N], is ...


6

There are some significant differences between Kansai-ben and what you see in textbooks, I'm not sure where you would get the idea that the only difference was in pitch emphasis. There are some very significant pitch-differences, but that's not the only change. (Personally, I felt the pitch changes were much easier to notice in Kyoto, but that might have ...


6

The different pitch accent patterns is easily the most noticeable phonetic difference when you look at the Kansaiben dialects (and it's important to mention that this is a group of dialects rather than a single dialect with no internal regional variation), so it's easy to conclude that this is the only real different in pronunciation between standard ...


6

It is most definitely an exception. The actual phonetic realisation of that series goes like this: は [ha] ひ [çi] ふ [ɸɯ~hɯ] へ [he] ほ [ho] In Middle Japanese they all were pronounced with [ɸ], which you can see in European transcriptions of names from the 1500s and 1600s - the Portuguese wrote e.g. <Faxecura> for a name that in Modern Japanese ...


6

Is there any way using kana to represent the unpalatalized /s/ before /i/ or /ɪ/? No, there isn't.


6

From my experience, it's no different than リー as you mentioned. My name has a シ in it, although it has been incorrectly guessed to be an elongated sound by people who don't know me that well. As such, there have been occasions when my former Japanese teacher (older woman) and 事務員's have written it as both シー and シィ.


5

Intervocalic ん is usually pronounced as a nasalized version of the preceding vowel, so in this case [ã]. This would lead to a pronunciation of ワンマン運転を (I'm adding the を from the clip, since otherwise I wouldn't be able to determine the pronunciation of the last ん in 運転) sounding something like [wa.m.ma.ã.u.n.te.ẽ.o] (dots between morae, tilde over a ...


5

I think you're just hearing two words that get said quickly and become slurred because they're so commonly used together. Human beings are lazy like that. I would think that "thank you" sounds like one word to a non-native English speaker :)


5

According to "Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: Japanese" by Hideo Okada, /ɽ/ is pronounced postalveolar in place rather than retroflex[...]. Initially and after /ɴ/, it is typically an affricate with short friction, . In a more Unicode-friendly notation, this could be transcribed as [ɖɻ̝̆] (where again, these aren't really retroflex ...


5

繁栄 and 反映, 半影, ... are pronounced //haɴeː// without glottal stop and ん as //ɴ//. The combination //ɴ// + vowel is difficult to pronounce, so in some cases, such as 反応【はんのう】, orthography has been adapted to allow for easier pronunciation (although はんおう might still be considered a valid pronunciation). Usually though a word has only a single valid spelling, ...


5

As a native speaker of English, I'd like to chime in and state that I too hear a clear distinction between the voiced and unvoiced consonants in the advertisement (and in spoken Japanese in general).


5

I doubt there is an official method or list of words used to explain kanji. If there were an official method that were a lot more efficient, then regular people would probably be using it and nobody would be having problems explaining how things are spelled. Having an official list would mean one would have to memorize thousands of words, one for each ...


5

I can only answer part of your question: the shift from かんおん to かんのん in the reading of 観音 is listed by several sources as due to 連声. (Shogakukan's 国語大辞典, and 大辞林 and 大辞泉) The Japanese Wikipedia article on 観音 states: 日本語の「カンノン」は「観音」の呉音読みであり、連声によって「オン」が「ノン」になったものである。 The Japanese Wikipedia article on 連声 interestingly suggests that the 音読み of kanji could ...


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