48

○ まる OK; correct; yes; supported; available (like ✔; note that the check mark usually means "wrong" in Japanese examinations) masked/censored character (like * in English used to mask characters in certain words; see this) rival horse; second likely to win (horse race; favorite horse is marked with ◎) win; victory; 白星 (when used as opposed to 黒星 = ● =...


18

I think on reading ヴァ, ヴィ, etc., people usually try to pronounce it differently from バ, ビ, etc., but with varying success. In fact, I think most Japanese that try to distinguish ヴァ and バ pronounce what would be //v// indeed like the Spanish [[β]], a voiced bilabial fricative (or like a combination like [[bβ]]). That seems to make sense since the voiceless ...


12

This question has a useful answer by Boaz Yaniv which points out that you may simply be mishearing ひ as し, but it misses the fact that some speakers actually do pronounce these the same way! This merger is mentioned briefly in The Phonology of Japanese, Labrune 2012, p.69: For certain speakers, the opposition between /h/ and /s/ is neutralized before i: ...


12

Probably you were hearing "velar nasal g" [ŋ], which is an allophone of [g] mainly heard in eastern parts of Japan. In Japanese, [ŋ] and [g] in がぎぐげご are variants (allophones) of the same sound (phoneme), and most people are totally unaware of the difference. If you're not sure what I'm talking about, please read these first: Why doesn't Japanese have a ...


10

I assume that you are asking whether native speakers can detect, as a child, whether a vowel is long (マーナ) or short (マナ). The answer is yes, infants can detect it by age 9.5 months according to the paper by Sato, Sogabe, Mazuka, "Discrimination of phonemic vowel length by Japanese infants" American Psychological Association, 2009


10

In the さしすせそ series, し is an exceptions to the pattern. Is ''she'' easier to pronounce than ''see'' or why does Japanese have this feature? This comes down to the biomechanics of pronunciation. It's the same reason we say things like "tenshun" in English for the word tension. The specific phenomenon is called "palatalization". There ...


9

tl;dr: It varies, but it is usually a weak "b". It varies from person to person, so some may pronounce it like the English "v", but others may use a strong "b" sound. Originally, Japanese had no ヴ character so they used variations of ビ (bi). I think some Japanese might be able to do it, but they find it quite awkward. That's why television is called テレビ (...


8

The people in the video are clearly saying いただきます, not いだだきます or いたたきます. Voiced and unvoiced consonants sound totally differently at least to the ears of native Japanese speakers, and I have never seen a native speaker who has difficulty distinguishing them. You may find this answer interesting: https://japanese.stackexchange.com/a/9333/5010


8

Not perfect but you could point out that in "see" the S sound is very similar to the S sound in さ [sa] but different from the S sound in しゃ [sha] or し [shi], and that the EE sound is very similar to the Japanese い [i]. That's how I have introduced it to students in the past. They almost certainly would have never noticed that the beginning S sound of し [shi] ...


7

Did 母 undergo ハ行転呼 and then change (back) to /haha/? Yes, it did become hawa (or rather ɸawa) before changing back. You may find citations here.


6

It is most definitely an exception. The actual phonetic realisation of that series goes like this: は [ha] ひ [çi] ふ [ɸɯ~hɯ] へ [he] ほ [ho] In Middle Japanese they all were pronounced with [ɸ], which you can see in European transcriptions of names from the 1500s and 1600s - the Portuguese wrote e.g. <Faxecura> for a name that in Modern Japanese ...


6

Is there any way using kana to represent the unpalatalized /s/ before /i/ or /ɪ/? No, there isn't.


6

From my experience, it's no different than リー as you mentioned. My name has a シ in it, although it has been incorrectly guessed to be an elongated sound by people who don't know me that well. As such, there have been occasions when my former Japanese teacher (older woman) and 事務員's have written it as both シー and シィ.


5

I can only answer part of your question: the shift from かんおん to かんのん in the reading of 観音 is listed by several sources as due to 連声. (Shogakukan's 国語大辞典, and 大辞林 and 大辞泉) The Japanese Wikipedia article on 観音 states: 日本語の「カンノン」は「観音」の呉音読みであり、連声によって「オン」が「ノン」になったものである。 The Japanese Wikipedia article on 連声 interestingly suggests that the 音読み of kanji could ...


5

In Japanese phonotactics, high vowels (for Japanese, these are i and u) have a certain property: they become unvoiced when surrounded by unvoiced sounds. Since the "u" in desu is surrounded on the left by "s" (voiceless) and on the right by nothing (nothing is also voiceless), the u is now voiceless. However, this rule is not universally followed; for ...


5

I doubt there is an official method or list of words used to explain kanji. If there were an official method that were a lot more efficient, then regular people would probably be using it and nobody would be having problems explaining how things are spelled. Having an official list would mean one would have to memorize thousands of words, one for each ...


5

As a native speaker of English, I'd like to chime in and state that I too hear a clear distinction between the voiced and unvoiced consonants in the advertisement (and in spoken Japanese in general).


5

Intervocalic ん is usually pronounced as a nasalized version of the preceding vowel, so in this case [ã]. This would lead to a pronunciation of ワンマン運転を (I'm adding the を from the clip, since otherwise I wouldn't be able to determine the pronunciation of the last ん in 運転) sounding something like [wa.m.ma.ã.u.n.te.ẽ.o] (dots between morae, tilde over a ...


5

繁栄 and 反映, 半影, ... are pronounced //haɴeː// without glottal stop and ん as //ɴ//. The combination //ɴ// + vowel is difficult to pronounce, so in some cases, such as 反応【はんのう】, orthography has been adapted to allow for easier pronunciation (although はんおう might still be considered a valid pronunciation). Usually though a word has only a single valid spelling, ...


5

This is not a direct answer to your question but let me explain about difference between voicing/devoicing vowels and prolonging vowels. There are several ways to pronounce です or the likes. des (1 syllable non-moraic 3 morae, /de/ is longer than /s/, sounds chopped foreign) des: (1 syllable 2 morae, /de/ and /s:/ are even, sounds eastern-dialect-ish) desu ...


5

ä with double dots isn't defined in the english language. What sound do you mean? お is defined as having one pronunciation, like "Oh" in english. Any variant is regional, or related to accent.


5

You're asking about two archiphonemes: The mora nasal phoneme /N/, written ん in Japanese orthography The mora obstruent phoneme /Q/, written っ in Japanese orthography The exact physical pronunciation of these phonemes depends on the phonetic context, in particular on the following sound. Let's look at /Q/ first: 一杯    いっぱい   /iQpai/   [ipːːɑi] 一点  ...


5

With minimal research, it seems like it's [振り]{fu・ri}[かぶる]{ka・bu・ru}. かぶる could also be written as 被る, but in this compound, I'm seeing it mostly in hiragana.


4

Well, I can again only speculate, but if they say it did not have /h/ but had /ɸ/ and nowadays it have /h/, it have probably evolved from that /ɸ/. When I played with my mouth and tried to say /hɯ/, with stiff lips as the Japanese /ɯ/ is to be pronounced, than I get a sound which resembles rather /ɸɯ/. So, maybe it is ok to try to say /hɯ/, you say /ɸɯ/ ...


4

You're on the right track, but a little off. When a language borrows a word from another language, it has two choices: drop the sounds that don't exist in their language, or add sounds to preserve the original pronunciation. Japanese is a language that tends to try to preserve the pronunciation. So, グ will not be pronounced as /ŋu/. However, /n/ becomes /...


4

If your native language is English, you may find that although the contrast between the pairs /t d/, /p b/, and /k g/ is nominally one of voicing, in practice it is frequently one of aspiration. The Japanese pairs are more of a true voiced and voiceless set, with /p t k/ having less aspiration, thus sounding somewhat like /b d g/ to English speakers. (On a ...


4

It turns out that OP's question is that Japanese ふ sometimes sounds as if Vietnamese ph //f// and other times kh //x//. That observation is true. The status of [[ɸ]] sound in Japanese is somewhat shaky because it appears mostly as an allophone in the environment //h// + //u// (strictly speaking, however, influx of modern loanwords has developed independent ...


4

頭高型 is a technical term which is also a compound noun. Ordinary native Japanese speakers usually have no idea about what 頭高型 means, so it's not surprising to me if it is not listed in an accent dictionary. Anyway, according to online videos (1, 2), the pitch accent of 頭高型 is あたまだかがた【LHHHHHH】. I think you can infer this if you know the pitch accent of 頭 and ~...


3

Shape of the tongue aside, what's important is that you're placing the tip of your tongue against your lower teeth. Try placing the tip of your tongue right where your lower teeth go into your gums. Thinking about the shape of the tongue in the mouth makes little difference; it's more about where the tip is in your mouth (as with all consonants). Here's a ...


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