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10

登録 does not have a past tense because it is a noun (meaning registration). It can be made into a verb by adding する. 登録する means 'to register', so naturally the past form would be 登録した. Many nouns can be turned into verbs by adding する. As above, 登録 is a noun. It cannot possibly be a verb because there is no way to conjugate it. All verbs must end in a kana ...


9

tl;dr 入る hairu is a consonant-stem verb, i.e. hair·u. Long version Besides a handful of exceptions, there are two type of verbs vowel-stem verbs (-e·ru, -i·ru) consonant-stem verbs (-k·u, -g·u, -s·u, -t·u, -n·u, -(w)·u, -m·u, -r·u) where I have used an interpunct · to separate the stem from the ending (and the hyphen - means there is more coming before it)....


8

ちゃう can be used in several completely different ways. Since you mentioned negation, I am certain you are entering the wild and wonderful world of the Osakan dialect. As standard Japanese: [Verb] + "ちゃう" means: (a contraction of て しまう) "go ahead and..." (wasn't sure if you had permission to do so.) (see a delicious-looking cake and) 食べちゃう!...


7

I believe [無駄足]{むだあし} is derived from [無駄足]{むだあし}を[運]{はこ}ぶ ("move one's feet in vain"), which is one of a series of counterintuitive idioms Japanese vocabulary has. [小腹]{こばら}が[減]{へ}る "little stomach get empty" actually describing "be a little hungry" (cf. [腹]{はら}が[減]{へ}る "be hungry") [大]{おお}ぼらを[吹]{ふ}く "blow on a big conch" actually, "blow on a conch loudly" ...


7

The name "ru verb" is misleading. This does not mean that every verb ending in -ru conjugates the same way. Certain verbs end in -ru, and that final -ru disappears in entirety when conjugating. These are called 一段活用 (ichidan katsuyō, literally "monograde conjugation" or "one-step conjugation") verbs in Japanese grammars, because there is only one vowel on ...


5

They're both correct, it just depends on the context in which the sentence appears. For example, if it were in a speech you would most likely say: 日本に行った時、新幹線に乗りませんでした。 However, perhaps in casual conversation with a friend you'd be more inclined to say: 日本に行った時、新幹線に乗らなかった。 Hope that helps!


5

The past tense of 居る{いる} (iru) is not いった (itta), but いた (ita); thus, the past tense of these words are not pronounced exactly the same. 「いった」has a slight stop before the t sound (making the t sound a little lengthened), whereas「いた」does not.


5

While there's no distinction grammatically in the positive sense, there is a distinction in negations: 朝食は、 何も食べなかった (I did not eat anything for breakfast) 朝から、何も食べていない (I have not eaten anything since breakfast) As shown in the preceding examples, for negations, the た-form is used for the simple past (did not) and the ている-form is used for present perfect (...


5

I believe what you are looking for can be found in a grammar dictionary, not a standard dictionary. According to A Dictionary of Advanced Japanese Grammar, this ものか is "a phrase indicating that the speaker wants to do [something] or is wondering what one he/she should choose". In the context of the sentence you gave, it would be "how one ...


5

お菓子を食べても良かったですか? お菓子を食べても大丈夫でしたか? Was it okay to eat the candy? This is already grammatically correct, but it says nothing about whether the speaker actually ate it or not. If you need to tell you actually ate it, you can say something like: お菓子を食べたんですが、良かったですか? お菓子を食べてしまいましたけど大丈夫でしたか? Also note that いいか, よかったか and so on without です/ます are unrealistically ...


4

Yes, your use of ~た + こと construction is correct. You can express the sentiment about an event that happened in the past at the moment of feeling. 家に帰れた[こと/の]‌がうれしい。 *Equivalent of "happy that --" is typically expressed with potential form, especially for the action of yourself. 電車を逃【の】がした[こと/の]‌が残念だ。 りんごを全部食べてしまったことにうろたえている。 However, the ...


4

(2) その栗{くり}今朝{けさ}も虫{むし}出{で}てきたよ。 (3) その栗{くり}今朝{けさ}も虫{むし}出{で}てきてたよ。 (2) When I saw the chestnuts, a bug just came out this morning, too. (3) When I saw the chestnuts, bugs were coming out this morning, too.


4

虫出てきてた is short for 虫(が)出てきていた. 出て: The te-form of 出る きて: The te-form of くる (来る) いた: The past-form (aka ta-form) of いる (居る) くる and いる here are both subsidiary verbs. くる denotes actions that is physically or psychologically moving toward you. See Difference between -ていく and -てくる. いる denotes the action is in progress. So the literal translation would be "...


4

It could have been avoided. それは避けられたかもしれない。 You are right. それは避けられたはずなのに、実際には避けられなかった。 それは避けられたはずなのに。 それは避けられたのに。 それは避けられたのかもしれません。 それは避けられたかもしれません。 それは避けられたのかもしれない。 それは避けられたかもしれない。 - Your answer Though sentence 5 and 7 are commonly used, I think, sentence 4 and 6 are more natural than sentence 5 and 7 respectively.


4

A:「実は3日前から足を怪我していて……」 B1:「なぜ(それを)早く言わない!?」 B2:「なぜ(それを)早く言わなかった!?」 Here, Sentences B1 and B2 are basically the same. Both refer to the statement A just said, and can be translated as "Why didn't you say it sooner?" or "You should've said that earlier!" The only difference I can feel is that B1 is slightly more emotional and/or emphatic than B2. In ...


4

Since your examples are in English, I should point out that the technical distinction you are making is between the simple past (a past verb form with no auxiliary attached - 'did') and the present perfect (a verb form with have/has + past participle - 'have done'). Japanese verbs operate very differently to this. Although there is a past tense in Japanese, ...


4

Your first example is special. 言うこと is almost an idiom (I'm sure it is except I don't find it in dictionaries) that should be understood as "(one's) words" rather than what it looks like. Thus 弟の言うことを聞いた is "I listened to my brother's words", or in English, even "I listened to my brother". If you said 弟の言ったことを聞いたばかりに~, it'd mean ...


3

日本語 「聞こえたか聞こえないかというくらいの音だ。」 「聞こえたか聞こえないか」は一種の慣用句であり、「聞こえたか聞こえなかったか」という意味を持った名詞とみなされています。文法的に見ると「過去形の肯定形+現在形の過去形」ですので矛盾しているように見えますが、文法的に忠実である「聞こえたか聞こえなかったか」では、語呂が悪いのでこのようになっているものと思われます。 従って、文法的な分析をあまり進めても無駄だと思います。 割り切って慣用句として覚えましょう。 「言ったか言わないか」や「したかしないか」なども同じ性質を持った表現です。 この表現と似ていますが、「現在形の肯定形+現在形の否定形」という形を持った表現として、「鳴るか鳴らない」「こぼれるかこぼれない」「出るか出ない」「(雨が)降るか降らない」などは、...


3

How to express feelings about a performed action? I am happy to have returned home. I am sad that I missed the train. I am upset that I finished the apples. 帰ったことが嬉しい is not wrong, but we don't really say it. I think what you are looking for is ~してよかった, or ~できてうれしい. This is the way we say it. 帰れて良かった, literally saying "It's good that I've ...


3

(だったら means "if it is, then".) さ as in だったらさ is never a sentence ending particle. So it's always a filler. さ as a sentence ender can appear (1) after a terminal form of verbs or adjectives, and (2) after a noun in the position of the predicate. e.g. (1) なんとか なるさ。 (2) (私は)探偵さ。


3

Go with your first example. とる literally just means "take". So in your second sentence, you say "I took my dog at the park." Which sounds as odd in Japanese as it does in English. :)


3

It can only be 行った. I can't think of any situation where 行くった would be meaningful. The verb 行く is slightly irregular. Normally, for a verb ending in く you would replace the く with いた to form the past tense. e.g. 書く -> 書いた.


3

Sounds to me like 「どうやって...たものか」would be a way of emphatically expressing rhetorical disbelief in the possibility of something, as in, "how could...", perhaps similar to saying「いったいどうやって...できるか」 Maybe in the context you mention, "how (he) could/would fool them"* So you might translate that sentence this way: どうやって彼らを誤魔化したものか──と思案するように、...


3

I believe the most natural ways to phrase your sentence are as follows: 今日はヨガが一番難しかった(です)。 ( Out of all the activities I did today, ) Yoga was the most difficult. Note: emphasis is on the word "yoga". です can be added but is not necessary. 今日一番難しかったのはヨガでした。 Today the most difficult part was Yoga. Note: の can be replaced with こと, they are ...


3

It's a quite complex topic and there is no general way due to differences between conditional forms, so I would advise you to read a short article by Yukinori Takubo: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/332249939_Conditionals_in_Japanese_in_Handbook_of_Japanese_Semantics_and_Pragmatics_Ed_by_Wesley_Jacobsen_Harvard_U_and_Yukinori_Takubo_NINJAL But I ...


3

話さなくている is already ungrammatical without (て)しまう/ちゃう. The correct form is 話していない ("is not talking/telling" or "has not told") or 話さないでいる ("to keep it untold"). There are two ways of combining (て)いる and ない. See: ~ないでいる verb ending and 〜ていない vs 〜ないでいる. Also note that (て)いる has two different meanings (progressive and perfect). To ...


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