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10

tl;dr 入る hairu is a consonant-stem verb, i.e. hair·u. Long version Besides a handful of exceptions, there are two type of verbs vowel-stem verbs (-e·ru, -i·ru) consonant-stem verbs (-k·u, -g·u, -s·u, -t·u, -n·u, -(w)·u, -m·u, -r·u) where I have used an interpunct · to separate the stem from the ending (and the hyphen - means there is more coming before ...


8

I believe [無駄足]{むだあし} is derived from [無駄足]{むだあし}を[運]{はこ}ぶ ("move one's feet in vain"), which is one of a series of counterintuitive idioms Japanese vocabulary has. [小腹]{こばら}が[減]{へ}る "little stomach get empty" actually describing "be a little hungry" (cf. [腹]{はら}が[減]{へ}る "be hungry") [大]{おお}ぼらを[吹]{ふ}く "blow on a big conch" actually, "blow on a conch loudly" ...


7

The name "ru verb" is misleading. This does not mean that every verb ending in -ru conjugates the same way. Certain verbs end in -ru, and that final -ru disappears in entirety when conjugating. These are called 一段活用 (ichidan katsuyō, literally "monograde conjugation" or "one-step conjugation") verbs in Japanese grammars, because there is only one vowel on ...


6

「今{いま}の一撃{いちげき}を素直{すなお}に食{く}らっておけば、楽{らく}に死{し}ねたのにね。」 This sentence is in a conversational/informal form of the English "If ~~ had ~~, ~~ would/could have ~~". That is why the tenses might look loose to someone who has studied with textbooks. This person has not died yet. 「死ねた」 here means 「死ねたはずだった」、「死ねたであろう」 = "would/could have died" "Had he received ...


5

The past tense of 居る{いる} (iru) is not いった (itta), but いた (ita); thus, the past tense of these words are not pronounced exactly the same. 「いった」has a slight stop before the t sound (making the t sound a little lengthened), whereas「いた」does not.


5

Yes, your use of ~た + こと construction is correct. You can express the sentiment about an event that happened in the past at the moment of feeling. 家に帰れた[こと/の]‌がうれしい。 *Equivalent of "happy that --" is typically expressed with potential form, especially for the action of yourself. 電車を逃【の】がした[こと/の]‌が残念だ。 りんごを全部食べてしまったことにうろたえている。 However, the ...


5

They're both correct, it just depends on the context in which the sentence appears. For example, if it were in a speech you would most likely say: 日本に行った時、新幹線に乗りませんでした。 However, perhaps in casual conversation with a friend you'd be more inclined to say: 日本に行った時、新幹線に乗らなかった。 Hope that helps!


5

It seems you have learned to use 「[次第]{しだい}」 incorrectly somewhere. In saying "upon doing A", 「次第」 cannot follow directly the dictionary form or the past tense form of a verb like [食]{た}べる and 食べた in your sentences. The only verb form that can precede 「次第」 is the [連用形]{れんようけい}. For the verb 「食べる」, the 連用形 is 「食べ」. The tense of the sentence is NOT ...


5

While there's no distinction grammatically in the positive sense, there is a distinction in negations: 朝食は、 何も食べなかった (I did not eat anything for breakfast) 朝から、何も食べていない (I have not eaten anything since breakfast) As shown in the preceding examples, for negations, the た-form is used for the simple past (did not) and the ている-form is used for present ...


5

It can only be 行った. I can't think of any situation where 行くった would be meaningful. The verb 行く is slightly irregular. Normally, for a verb ending in く you would replace the く with いた to form the past tense. e.g. 書く -> 書いた.


4

虫出てきてた is short for 虫(が)出てきていた. 出て: The te-form of 出る きて: The te-form of くる (来る) いた: The past-form (aka ta-form) of いる (居る) くる and いる here are both subsidiary verbs. くる denotes actions that is physically or psychologically moving toward you. See Difference between -ていく and -てくる. いる denotes the action is in progress. So the literal translation would be "...


4

(だったら means "if it is, then".) さ as in だったらさ is never a sentence ending particle. So it's always a filler. さ as a sentence ender can appear (1) after a terminal form of verbs or adjectives, and (2) after a noun in the position of the predicate. e.g. (1) なんとか なるさ。 (2) (私は)探偵さ。


4

How to express feelings about a performed action? I am happy to have returned home. I am sad that I missed the train. I am upset that I finished the apples. 帰ったことが嬉しい is not wrong, but we don't really say it. I think what you are looking for is ~してよかった, or ~できてうれしい. This is the way we say it. 帰れて良かった, literally saying "It's good that I've ...


4

Both 「ばかり」 and 「ところ」 can be used to describe the endings of either voluntary or involuntary actions. It is perfectly grammatical and natural-sounding to say all of the following: ・「やっと冬{ふゆ}が終{お}わった(ばかり/ところ)です。まだ海水浴{かいすいよく}には行{い}けません。」 "Winter has just ended at long last. We couldn't go bathing in the sea yet." ・「今{いま}、晩{ばん}ご飯{はん}を食{た}べた(ばかり/ところ)です。おなかが一杯{...


4

I believe what you are looking for can be found in a grammar dictionary, not a standard dictionary. According to A Dictionary of Advanced Japanese Grammar, this ものか is "a phrase indicating that the speaker wants to do [something] or is wondering what one he/she should choose". In the context of the sentence you gave, it would be "how one should do/...


3

「 聞{き}こえたか聞こえないかというくらいの音{おと}だ。」 Your translation is: "The sound was so quiet that I wasn't even sure if I heard it or not." You are clearly thinking in English here. 「聞こえない」 can mean "I didn't hear it.", too. In other words, 「聞こえない」 can mean the same as 「聞こえなかった」. If you asked a group of native Japanese-speakers a question like: 「今{いま}、そっちの方{ほう}から変{...


3

Your intuition is mostly on point. One possibility I thought of, is that she's using the て-form as a conjunctive form that would eventually lead to a final verb that would genuinely be in the た-form. This is the general idea behind ending sentences with the て form - that there is some omitted remainder of the sentence, left out because it was obvious to ...


3

The past tense form 待った (ie, the auxiliary た in 待った) in your example indicates urgent request/command (要求・命令). 明鏡国語辞典 states: た 〘助動詞〙 ➍ 《終止形で》差し迫った要求・命令を表す。「さあ、帰った、帰った。」「おっと待った」 So your sentence 「ゴングをならすのはまったあっ」 practically means the same thing as 「ゴングを鳴らすのは待て」 or 「ゴングを鳴らすのは待ってくれ」. For more detail on this usage of た, please refer to these threads: ...


3

A:「実は3日前から足を怪我していて……」 B1:「なぜ(それを)早く言わない!?」 B2:「なぜ(それを)早く言わなかった!?」 Here, Sentences B1 and B2 are basically the same. Both refer to the statement A just said, and can be translated as "Why didn't you say it sooner?" or "You should've said that earlier!" The only difference I can feel is that B1 is slightly more emotional and/or emphatic than B2. In ...


3

Go with your first example. とる literally just means "take". So in your second sentence, you say "I took my dog at the park." Which sounds as odd in Japanese as it does in English. :)


3

(2) その栗{くり}今朝{けさ}も虫{むし}出{で}てきたよ。 (3) その栗{くり}今朝{けさ}も虫{むし}出{で}てきてたよ。 (2) When I saw the chestnuts, a bug just came out this morning, too. (3) When I saw the chestnuts, bugs were coming out this morning, too.


3

What you have found is not the past -た form, but the -たい form. It is attached to the 連用形 "i-form" (a.k.a. the infinitive) and indicates that you want to do something. Thus, 「行きたい」 means "want to go". 兄ちゃんも行きたいって言ってたし。 Brother said he wants to go, too.


3

It could have been avoided. それは避けられたかもしれない。 You are right. それは避けられたはずなのに、実際には避けられなかった。 それは避けられたはずなのに。 それは避けられたのに。 それは避けられたのかもしれません。 それは避けられたかもしれません。 それは避けられたのかもしれない。 それは避けられたかもしれない。 - Your answer Though sentence 5 and 7 are commonly used, I think, sentence 4 and 6 are more natural than sentence 5 and 7 respectively.


3

In many contexts, the two translate similarly, but it might help to look at longer sentences to see why they are not identical. [私]{わたし}に[数学]{すうがく}を[教]{おし}えた = [you - implied subject] taught me math. [私]{わたし}に[数学]{すうがく}を[教]{おし}えてくれた. = [you - implied subject] deigned to teach me math. くれる means something like "lowered yourself" / "gifted me by" ... ...


3

The rule for '-ru' (ichidan) verbs and '-u' (godan) verbs is 'anything ending in '-iru' or '-eru' can be a '-ru' verb. But 入る and しゃべる are not; they are '-u' verbs that conjugate as you would expect.


3

Since your examples are in English, I should point out that the technical distinction you are making is between the simple past (a past verb form with no auxiliary attached - 'did') and the present perfect (a verb form with have/has + past participle - 'have done'). Japanese verbs operate very differently to this. Although there is a past tense in Japanese, ...


3

This is a rather simple example of a cleft sentence. アニーは一本のなわばしごを指さしていた。 Annie was pointing to a long rope ladder. アニーが指さしているのは、一本のなわばしごだった。 It was a long rope ladder that Annie was pointing to. Grammatically speaking, だった is modifying nothing. Note: This の/it is referring to a tangible object, so in this case, it is possible to translate the ...


3

Sounds to me like 「どうやって...たものか」would be a way of emphatically expressing rhetorical disbelief in the possibility of something, as in, "how could...", perhaps similar to saying「いったいどうやって...できるか」 Maybe in the context you mention, "how (he) could/would fool them"* So you might translate that sentence this way: どうやって彼らを誤魔化したものか──と思案するように、ヒューイは愛想笑いを浮かべた。 Huey ...


2

The former is the full sentence without any ambiguity. とる has a lot of meanings (including 捕る "to capture" and 盗る "to steal"). You have to specify which とる you are using in some way or another. You can use the latter sentence if the context makes it clear that you're talking about photos. You don't have to say 写真【しゃしん】(を) again and again. A: しゃしんはすきですか? ...


2

タイへ行く時に、タイ語を少し習った。 When going to Thailand, I studied a little of Thai. Because 行く refers either to the present or future, it means that I studied Thai BEFORE going to Thailand. タイへ行った時に、タイ語を少し習った。 When I went to Thailand, I studied a little of Thai. This has the exact same meaning as in English. I went to Thailand, THEN I studied Thai.


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