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As the other answers have mentioned, in classical Japanese サ変's 未然形 was せ and thus the passive せられる is just the standard 未然形 + られる. Some of these super irregular する verbs still retain this characteristic. However, some of these irregular words have changed and are more similar to 五段 or 一段 verbs now. For example, 愛する conjugates into 愛さない, behaving similarly ...


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If I understand correctly, your problem is with the されて in 英語は世界中で話されています But this さ just comes from the す part of 話す. To make the passive form for group 1 verbs you take the stem for negative verbs and add れる. So for example the negative of 話す is 話さない, the stem is 話さ, and then we add れる to give 話される. For group 2 verbs you take the masu-stem and add られる ...


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