13

Yes, your reasoning is correct. は/が is used to describe when the action happens to the thing itself. を is used to emphasize the (usually negative) effect of the action on the subject, optionally indicating the agent of the action with に. 弟にケーキを食べられた → My cake was eaten by my little brother (anger/aggravation implied). カバンを取られてしまった → My bag was ...


12

私に言われても is Suffering Passive (迷惑の受身), a kind of Indirect Passive Structure (間接受身構文), and 私が言われても is Direct Passive Structure (直接受身構文). 「(あなたが)私に言う」 (Active/能動) "You tell me." → Direct Passive: 「私が(あなたに)言われる」 "I am told (by you)." → Indirect Passive: 「(私が)(あなたに)私に*言われる」 "You tell me (and it affects me in some way)." This means "You do the action 私に言う (you ...


10

The key part of this construction that implies a negative outcome is the passivity on the one hand, and the actions of the verbal phrases on the other -- the subject of these sentences is having something done to them, in a way that is outside of their control, and that something is unpleasant or adverse in some way. One construction I've run across in ...


10

Context is important. With passive verbs you should look for a に before the verb that will mark the person or thing that performs the verb. This is not the same as the subject of the verb. For example, if you see the short phrase: お兄さんに食べられた。 You can figure out pretty quickly from the に that this is not the potential. The subject of the sentence is an ...


10

"に" coupled with the passive form of a verb will do the trick. I was rejected by him 彼に断られた I was laughed at by him 彼に笑われた In the above examples, the English "by" would correspond to the "に". The passive form can also be combined with the causative form, to form a causative-passive form. He made me laugh 彼に笑わせられた


10

「何, どこ, だれ, いつ etc. + ~~(よ)うが」 「何, どこ, だれ, いつ etc. + ~~(よ)うと(も)」 「何, どこ, だれ, いつ etc. + ~~ても」 mean "No matter what, where, who, etc. ~~". For example: 何を言おうが / 何を言おうと(も) / 何を言っても (No matter what ~~ say, ...) どこに行こうが / どこに行こうと(も) / どこに行っても (No matter where ~~ go, ...) 何があろうが / 何があろうと(も) / 何があっても (No matter what happens, ...) 何を頼まれようが / 何を頼まれようと(...


10

逃げられたの 彼氏に!! As you've noticed, this is an inverted word order of: 彼氏に逃げられたの 逃げられた here is Suffering Passive (迷惑の受身), which is a kind of Indirect Passive (間接受身). As you know, in passive sentences the agent (動作主) of the action is marked with に. eg お母さんが私を褒める → 私がお母さんに褒められる. Here the agent of 逃げる is 彼氏, hence: 彼氏が逃げた (active) My boyfriend ran away. → ...


9

There are various ways to analyze passives in Japanese grammatically (see Ishizuka, p. 174), but I will be presenting a specific view which I really like, which is Ishizuka's. When you passivize a sentence in Japanese (by adding -(r)are- to the verb), you lift a non-が argument of the active sentence to が, and lift the が argument of the active sentence to に....


9

(Here I'm trying to show why 四方を海に囲まれる is not direct passive. Please see this as an appendix to broccoliforest's answer and reply to KentaroTomono's comment.) First, OP's second sentence 四方が海に囲まれる is direct passive. Wikipedia defines「直接受身は、能動文における直接目的語または間接目的語を主語にするものである。」(source). Following this definition, a direct passive sentence is formed this way: ...


9

あいつに邪魔されやがった isn't ungrammatical, but it would be unnatural in the context you're probably thinking of, because やがる indicates negative feeling towards the subject of the verb it's attached to. So in this case the speaker would be angry not at the person who did the obstructing, but the person who was obstructed. So the sentence doesn't really work at all if ...


9

I was also warned that Japan has very hot summers and that I should be careful. How about... 日本の夏はとても(orすごく)暑いので気をつけるように、とも言われました。 「~~ように(と)言う」 means "tell someone to do~~". Its passive form is 「~~ように(と)言われる」"I am told to do~~" The も in とも言われました means "also". (We don't say ~~ように、も言われました.)


9

あれは魔術師に与えられた祝福(だ) is ambiguous. That is a blessing given to a sorcerer. (the same as あれは魔術師へ与えられた祝福だ, which is unambiguous) That is a blessing given by a sorcerer. (the same as あれは魔術師{から/より}与えられた祝福だ, which is unambiguous) (Replace "blessing" to "blessed item" if you like.) In this case, both seem equally possible, so you have to decide the more plausible ...


8

It's a little bit of an apples-to-oranges comparison: 建てられた   =  建てる + られる      + た (passive + past) 建てました   =  建てる +       ます + た ( polite + past) One verb has the polite auxiliary 〜ます, the other has the passive auxiliary 〜られる. Both verbs have the past auxiliary 〜た. But these are all separate variables, and we can use any ...


8

限られていない is the te-form of the passive voice of 限る, followed by いる to denote the continuation of state. So the literal translation is "has not been limited". Basically ~ていない focuses more on how things have been up until now rather than how things are now, but in this case the difference is not very important. Of course it works. 限られない is the plain passive ...


8

外国人に質問を聞かれたが、答えられなかった。 I interpret the sentence as "I was asked a question by a foreigner but couldn't answer" (に in 外国人に marks 動作主/agent of 聞く), and I don't think it's Indirect Passive Structure (間接受身構文), because... Active: 「外国人が私に質問を聞いた」 (「質問をした」 sounds more natural to me, though) has two objects (i.e. direct object 「質問」 and indirect object 「私」), ...


8

This 小せえもん ("trivial things") is a paraphrase of 国のため(とか). It's read like trivial things such as "for our country" or "For our country"... such trivial things. In other words, this guy is making light of petty nationalism, and seeing something even bigger than Cuba. EDIT: In case you missed it, this が after 凡人共 is a derogatory vocative-like particle, e.g., "...


8

In this case it is 方言を知らない人(A)が(方言を使う人Bに)「これをなげて」と言われて、「投げる」だと(Aが)解釈して、(Aが)ごみを投げ返して(Bに)怒られたという話がある。 And the 怒られる is just a standard passive of “BがAに怒った” (B ‘madded at’ A) → “AがBに怒られた” (A got ‘madded at’ by B). I think the terms “indirect passive” and “direct passive” are generally misleading. Basically when the subject of a passive sentence is a human, ...


7

I might be seeing this too simplistically, but in the first sentence: 泥棒に財布を盗ぬすまれた (A thief stole my wallet) you are the subject and the wallet is the object, hence the を on the wallet. In the second sentence: 泥棒に財布が盗まれた (the/a wallet was stolen by a thief) the wallet is the (passive) subject, hence the が.


7

Little words like by and に have lots of uses. He was murdered by his own doctor! She was sitting by the tree enjoying the sun. I won the contest by cheating. She bills by the hour. In the first sentence, by is used for the agent of a passive clause. In the second sentence, by is used to express a location. In the third sentence, by is used ...


7

Your question actually contains multiple topics. Is 四方を海に囲まれる an indirect passive sentence? Does this type of passive allow for the を? Is 四方が海に囲まれる correct as well? Spoiler: 1.—Maybe, 2.—Yes, 3.—Yes Is 四方を海に囲まれる an indirect passive sentence? Well, it depends. Japanese passive usages can be categorized into three types. Direct passive: ...


7

I'll present one model for thinking about Japanese passives -- hopefully it will help. Consider the underlying active sentence: 誰かが [私の]背中を 押した。 To make it passive, you demote the が-marked argument to に, and then pick something from the sentence to promote to が. If you promote 私の to 私が, you get A. If you promote [私の]背中を to [私の]背中が, you get B. A: [私が]...


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