52

In your example, 日本人の知らない is a relative clause, equivalent in meaning to 日本人が知らない. This clause as a whole modifies 日本語, so it means the Japanese that Japanese people don't know. In relative clauses, the subject particle が can be replaced with の: ジョンが買った本 ジョンの買った本 The book John bought This is true in double-subject constructions as well: ...


30

How about... I think she is dumb. 彼女のことをバカだと僕は思っている。 ↓ She thinks that I think she is dumb. 彼女のことをバカだと僕が思っていると彼女は思っている。 ↓ I think that she thinks that I think she is dumb. 彼女のことをバカだと僕が思っていると彼女が思っていると僕は思っている。 ↓ X thinks that I think that she thinks that I think she is dumb. 彼女のことをバカだと僕が思っていると彼女が思っていると僕が思っているとXさんは思っている。 ↓ Y thinks that X thinks that I think ...


29

Here's the English equivalents for the IPA: [ɡ] = the 'g' in 'get' [ŋ] = the 'ng' in 'sing' The main difference is that [ŋ] is a nasal consonant, whereas [ɡ] is not. If you try plugging your nose and pronouncing [ŋ], you'll realize that it's not possible. That's because air must flow through the nasal passage, but not the oral passage, for [ŋ]. The ...


28

Negative Polarity Items (NPIs) in English Every language has lexical items which are restricted, seemingly arbitrarily, to specific contexts. Let's start with some English sentences to introduce the concept: ​1a. I don't like her at all. ​1b. *I like her at all. The first sentence is fine, but the second sentence doesn't work because at all is a ...


26

Your question is about two different things: The usage of particle で and particle に to express place vs. action. The usage of particle は to highlight a matter in the sentence. Understanding particle で vs. particle に When you want to express where a certain action is taking place, you use particle で. Consider the following examples: 1a) My mom bought an ...


26

Cross-linguistically, grammatical words like に and で are often unpredictable or idiosyncratic, and you can't always explain them logically. For example, in English, we say arrive at but not *arrive to. And we say Welcome to X but not *Welcome at X. Why? No reason. It's arbitrary. It seems like the alternatives should be just as logical, but for some ...


23

These are sometimes called embedded questions, but if you look them up you'll find a variety of terminology in use, including "embedded interrogative content clauses" and "indirect questions". I think the か in embedded questions is more or less the same か used to form regular questions. But there are a couple differences: In an embedded question, it's ...


21

When being used as a grammatical particle ([助詞]{じょし}), は is pronounced わ (wa), を is pronounced お (o), and へ (which you may not have come across yet) is pronounced え (e). I've never used Rosetta Stone but it seems quite strange that it would not mention this... Information as to the historical reason for this difference between spelling and pronunciation ...


19

The small ぇ in 手ぇふった is a way of indicating in writing the compensatory lengthening of the vowel in a single-mora word that sometimes occurs when the following case particle を is omitted in familiar speech. This is described in The Phonology of Japanese (Labrune 2012) in section 2.7.5, 'Prosodic Lengthening'. So as Yang Muye says, it means 手をふった.


18

It's just standard GA-NO conversion. [日本人が知らない]日本語 'Japanese that [Japanese don't know]'


17

There is なのです (often contracted to なんです), which fits the bill. Just like you suspect, it is declarative/emphatic. This なんです is unrelated to 何{なん}です, but rather a combination of な (the inflection of the copula だ, if you like), the nominalizer の plus the "politifier" です. It also exists in non-polite form: なのだ・なんだ. It really appears everywhere, e.g. as a ...


16

Most of this answer is basically subjective, but there's a lot going on in this question that I think should be addressed. The tldr version: Yes, を is frequently used in "real" Japanese. But if I may offer my 2 cents.. Be careful not to get ahead of yourself in your assumptions about what is and isn't "real" Japanese. Sure, 私は is often dropped, but only ...


16

Answer It's translated like: A flower I took to use it as an evidence that I went to the flower garden on the hill (at the back of something like a house). Reference If a person uses (One's thinking) と、N, s/he wants to use N along his/her thinking. Like: 彼へのお[土産]{みやげ}にと、[買]{か}ってきたお[菓子]{かし}。 -> A candy I bought to make it a souvenir for him. 縄跳びで[遊]{...


15

I feel like this has been asked before, but I can't find it if it has. You've got it spot on with と being the quotation marker; that is Xと言う means that X was literally (more or less) what was said. Using を is more about the meaning/gist/essence of what is said. Here's a pair that I always remember to help distinguish them. なにを言ってるのか? → "What are you ...


15

This is not as much of a newbie question as you might think. dainichi gave a good general rule-of-thumb, but at the risk of confusing you, I'd like to point out that there are many cases when を and が are actually interchangeable. For example, the sentence "I can play the piano" can be written either ピアノが弾【ひ】ける piano ga hikeru or ピアノを弾【ひ】ける piano ...


15

You need to distinguish spelling and pronunciation. You do this all the time in English: you're aware that two ("one plus one") and too ("also") have the same pronunciation even though they're spelled differently. Likewise, in Japanese, keep in mind that the particle を is always spelled を, even though its basic pronunciation is the same ...


14

I think the existing answers are missing something very important, and that is that に (the dative case marker) can be used to mark subjects given certain predicates. This is called the "dative subject construction". In modern Japanese, I believe you only see this construction if it is contrasted (i.e., には), or if it is embedded. Some examples may help: ...


14

It depends not only on the verb, but on the form of the verb. The general rule is that static verbs and adjectives take "ga" and "action verbs" take "o" on the direct object. piano-o hiku play the piano piano-ga hikeru can play the piano Here, playing the piano is an action, thus "o" is used. Being able to play the ...


14

No, you can't use だ that way. Here's what you're trying to do: あした   = tomorrow だ     = is げつようび = Monday Unfortunately, that doesn't work. Why not? Japanese grammar is different from English grammar. That means you can't put words together the same way in both languages. Japanese vocabulary is different from English vocabulary. That means that words ...


14

"で" in どこでも is not the particle "で" meaning "at" or "in". Here, "でも" is something like English "-ever" or "any-" in whatever, anywhere, etc. だれでも whoever だれにでも勝てる I can defeat anyone. (~に勝つ = defeat ~) いつでも whenever いつまででも (lit. until whenever) forever なんでも whatever どこでも (in/at) wherever どこにでも行く go (to) wherever どこへでも行く go (to) wherever どこまででも行く go (to) ...


14

This に is not a location marker. In this article about the particle に: Source "Ni" indicates an agent or a source in passive or causative verbs. It translates into "by" or "from". 母にしかられた。 I was scolded by my mother. トムに英語を教えてもらった。 I was taught English by Tom. The verb in question, 見つかる, is categorized as a passive-like verb (受動詞)...


14

生きてて良かったって、心の底から思える瞬間って、どんな感じかしら? These two って's are not the same. The first って is a quotative particle. From デジタル大辞泉: って 🈩[格助] 1 引用する語、または文の下に付いて、次に来る動作・作用の内容を表す。…と。「金を貸してくれって頼まれた」「読書しろって言われた」 The って is a quotative particle and means と. The two example sentences given in the dictionary can be rephrased as 「金を貸してくれと頼まれた」「読書しろと言われた」. って is more ...


14

In Nominal apposition in Japanese (2004), Rumiko Sode calls this など an "exemplifier", and considers this construction a type of apposition in which one noun phrase restates a subset of another. Basically, you've got two noun phrases next to each other: N1などN2 Which expresses that N1 is included within N2. In other words, N1 is a restatement of part of ...


13

ぜ and ぞ are sentence-final particles used (primarily) by male speakers which are more colloquial versions of the particle よ. In order of decreasing politeness, they are 逃げるよ。 逃げるぞ。 逃げるぜ。 The addition of よ・ぞ・ぜ give the statement an assertive feel, maybe like an exclamation mark or adding something like "hey!" (although that's already represented in ...


13

って is a colloquial particle and has two main functions. Being used as a colloquial topic marker (instead of は or とは), e.g. 人ってすごいよね。 People are awesome. Being used as a quotation marker (instead of と or という), e.g. 変な人って言ってたよ。 She said you are a little weird. 人って言葉は何か変だな。 The word "hito" is kinda weird.


13

When a verb is directly marked by だろう/でしょう, there are three meanings: 行くだろう "It will (probably) go." (downwards tone throughout) "It's going, isn't it?" (upwards during 行く, then downstep) "I wonder if it will go." (neutral tone throughout) While if it's marked by (ん/の)+(だろう/でしょう), it's like before, but the first option is strengthened a little: ...


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