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Ok your question is really quite general about particles, so I'm going to give some general advice. 1: Instead of reducing each individual situation or sentence to a 'do I use wa or ga here?' question, try to think of the overall meaning of the particles instead. If you grasp the deeper meaning of the particles, you will start to understand the answer ...


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I think I know the answers, although I’m a novice. Yes, personal names would practically always take wa when used like shown in your example. No, there are other particles you can use, like mo and ya, etc. Yes, interchangeable.


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Well, generally every language has some quirks in its grammar, but as for your examples, を is the only option and に is never used. I sense from your statement "I would've thought に would be used in place, but instead を is used" that you may think or be taught that case particles each represent some kind of "universal" trait, but they are actually decided by ...


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I read that に is used for indicating places of existence, target recipient [of something], the occasion, or the source of receiving an item. (There may be some I have missed.) I also read that を is for objects of a transitive verb (meaning a verb that needs something to receive the action it indicates). If I remember or know correctly, の is used before a ...


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You already seem to vaguely understand the difference, but to summarize: noun + ~を聞く = I hear [noun]: You hear a sound/music/story/etc. 窓が割れるのを聞いた means your heard the cracking noise. clause + ~と聞く = I hear that [clause]: You hear some fact (via conversations/news/etc). 窓が割れたと聞いた means you heard the news from someone but did not hear the noise itself. In ...


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「美{うつく}しい伝統{でんとう}の国柄{くにがら}を明日{あす}の日本{にっぽん}へ」 That is not a sentence. It is a perfectly-formed phrase for a title, headline or motto, but without a verb at the end, I would not call it a sentence. So, what is the verb that is left unsaid? It would be the one that logically fits below (in English): "to (verb) our beautiful national characteristics into/...


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