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This may be disappointing to hear, but there's no major difference between 外は寒いので(…) and 外が(…) unless you imagine peculiar situations. (That's why native speakers produced both of those sentences.) Why is that? That's because using vs not using は heavily depends on context. From what I understand, double は is used for comparisons. Where the first は ...


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「は」 marks topic, while 「に」 marks direction (「海{うみ}に行{い}きます」) or place of existance (「この町{まち}に映画館{えいがかん}がありますか」), and a lot of other things. So 「君の出身地はどこですか」 means "Speaking of your birth place, where is it?", while 「君の出身地にどこですか」I guess sounds something like "About what's in your birthplace, where is it?", if anything at all, which doesn't really means ...


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君の出身地にどこがありますか? I'm sorry to say that this sentence (using に) is not grammatically correct. に is a particle that indicates: Direction of movement. Place of existence Destination Result of Change Object of a verb Source (of a verb) Specific time The Japanese equivalent of the English 'per' (as in 'three meals per day') You can read more about the に ...


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Ok your question is really quite general about particles, so I'm going to give some general advice. 1: Instead of reducing each individual situation or sentence to a 'do I use wa or ga here?' question, try to think of the overall meaning of the particles instead. If you grasp the deeper meaning of the particles, you will start to understand the answer ...


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I think I know the answers, although I’m a novice. Yes, personal names would practically always take wa when used like shown in your example. No, there are other particles you can use, like mo and ya, etc. Yes, interchangeable.


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