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1

「階段の蛙」translates literally to "the frog of the stair", which is to be understood as "the frog [that is] on the stair". So this expression does not actually deviate from the 'standard' meaning of の, in my opinion. A construction that I think you would be interested in here would be something like こいつは妹のカエデ, ie. "this is my sister ...


3

出しよう is functioning as a noun in the sentence, which is why you would use の to connect another noun to it. This is similar to how you would say 手紙の書き方 and not 手紙を書き方, even though 書き方 is based on the verb 書く. Perhaps the fact that the よう in this grammar point is usually not written in kanji makes it look less like it's a noun, but technically this よう is 様. It ...


3

In all your examples the word before のために is a noun. The word ため is itself a noun and の is how you join two nouns together. So I don't think there is much reason to be surprised here. Perhaps you also saw examples with verbs before ため but, as I'm sure you already know, verb phrases modify nouns directly so you would not expect to see の in these cases. ...


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