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Your question is about two different things: The usage of particle で and particle に to express place vs. action. The usage of particle は to highlight a matter in the sentence. Understanding particle で vs. particle に When you want to express where a certain action is taking place, you use particle で. Consider the following examples: 1a) My mom bought an ...


21

The parallel marker に is used when you're putting together a list of related things (nouns), adding each one as you go. In particular, it gets used if you're trying to think of things (like when you're at a restaurant, trying to think of what food you want to get), and that includes when you're trying to recall at least two things from memory (like if you'...


15

It is very simple: A 間 B  means; All the time that A took place B was also happening. (I read my book while it was raining) A 間に B means; While A took place B happend. The nuance to appreciate is that B is an event that occurred (started & finished) at some point during the period A took place. It did not go on all the time. (While it was raining ...


15

This に is for listing things ("work or school"). The sentence is roughly the same as お仕事や学校を頑張って.


14

I think the existing answers are missing something very important, and that is that に (the dative case marker) can be used to mark subjects given certain predicates. This is called the "dative subject construction". In modern Japanese, I believe you only see this construction if it is contrasted (i.e., には), or if it is embedded. Some examples may help: ...


14

的 makes 世界 into a 形容動詞 ("na-adjective"), which, when functioning as adverb, turns into ~的に. ~的では is simply ungrammatical.


14

This に is not a location marker. In this article about the particle に: Source "Ni" indicates an agent or a source in passive or causative verbs. It translates into "by" or "from". 母にしかられた。 I was scolded by my mother. トムに英語を教えてもらった。 I was taught English by Tom. The verb in question, 見つかる, is categorized as a passive-like verb (受動詞)...


13

I looked the at the use of 感じる a few months ago. I came to the following conclusions: The verb is usually transitive (他動詞) ; it takes を with a noun (including embedded noun phrases with の)but It can also be intransitive (自動詞): Space ALC list it as both and give the example ~が退屈に感じる (feel bored [uninspired]). It can also take と to mark a "...


12

As ssb and fefe wrote, the sentence consists of two clauses which share the main verb あります. In this particular case, it would be easier to read if the author put a 読点 (“、”) in the sentence: 白い箱はカウチの上に、緑のランプは机の上にあります。 However, unlike commas in English, 読点 in Japanese is rarely (if ever) grammatically required. Authors are free to use 読点 wherever they ...


12

私に言われても is Suffering Passive (迷惑の受身), a kind of Indirect Passive Structure (間接受身構文), and 私が言われても is Direct Passive Structure (直接受身構文). 「(あなたが)私に言う」 (Active/能動) "You tell me." → Direct Passive: 「私が(あなたに)言われる」 "I am told (by you)." → Indirect Passive: 「(私が)(あなたに)私に*言われる」 "You tell me (and it affects me in some way)." This means "You do the action 私に言う (you ...


12

Adjectives can often be used 'adverbially' (though they are generally not analysed by Japanese grammarians as 副詞) by adding に rather than な or in this case の.


11

子供を本を読ませる is ungrammatical, and you have to say 子供に本を読ませる. Here are the basic rules for causation: For verbs which take を, the agent (or "causee") is marked with に. Such verbs are usually transitive verbs, but some intransitive verbs take を, too. For verbs which don't take を (i.e., most intransitive verbs), the agent is marked with を. In your question, 読む ...


11

The に form is the "base" sentence here, and the は is added for emphasis. One key to understanding how できる happens grammatically is that できる is often describing the thing that can be done, instead of the people or things doing the thing. Sometimes a closer gloss is doable rather than can -- English can describes the people or things doing the thing, while ...


11

まだ固いつぼみを見つけ出して、これにあたたかい春の風を送り、花に育てる The direct object of 育てる is left out. It's これ, i.e. まだ固いつぼみ, "firm buds". It's 「(これ(=まだ固いつぼみ)を)花に育てる」, "bring up (firm buds) into flowers". そこへゆくと、[まだ固いつぼみを見つけ出して、これにあたたかい春の風を送り、花に育てる]編集のしごとはそれ自体が一つの芸術である。 Means something along the lines of... In contrast, the work of editing [where you find firm buds, tend them ...


11

The ultimate answer to your question is "Japanese is different from English". I understand you want a reason, but there may not be a good reason. Some English transitive verbs are translated using a Japanese intransitive verb, and vice versa. For each verb, you have to remember the correct particle, one by one. Intransitive in English, Transitive in ...


10

This is an instance of the pattern VようにもBない 作ろう is what is often called the "volitional form" in English. The root verb is 作る [to make]. にも expresses "even though" and when joined to the volitional form makes a conditional "even if you wanted to V". Here, it means "even if you wanted to make some thing [to eat]" 材料 = ingredients in this context も何もない = ...


10

[他]{ほか} is a noun. And it can be used alone as a noun; example from 明鏡国語辞典: 「ここには[見当]{みあ}たらないから、どこか[他]{ほか}を[捜]{さが}そう。」 It can also be used adverbially; from 明鏡国語辞典: 「[会長]{かいちょう}[他]{ほか}[三名]{さんめい}が[出席]{しゅっせき}」 「[文書]{ぶんしょ}をもってする[他]{ほか}、[口頭]{こうとう}でも[説明]{せつめい}する」 Since 他 is a noun, 他の can modify nouns / noun phrases adjectivally... like 「[別]{べつ}の + [部屋]{...


10

寒さのために死んだ。 The のために means "due to~" "all because of~" "only/primarily for the reason of~". ~ために has a nuance of "the result was caused only/primarily for this reason", and its main clause, or apodosis, (「死んだ」 here) should usually be an unfavorable/unwelcomed result. The sentence can be rephrased as: 寒さのせいで死んだ。 「~のせいで~」「~のために~」 could have a blaming or ...


10

逃げられたの 彼氏に!! As you've noticed, this is an inverted word order of: 彼氏に逃げられたの 逃げられた here is Suffering Passive (迷惑の受身), which is a kind of Indirect Passive (間接受身). As you know, in passive sentences the agent (動作主) of the action is marked with に. eg お母さんが私を褒める → 私がお母さんに褒められる. Here the agent of 逃げる is 彼氏, hence: 彼氏が逃げた (active) My boyfriend ran away. → ...


9

In this type of sentence, まで means "all the way to ~" with emphasis on the journey. The question is asking which is faster to get to the airport, but in order to judge this, you have to consider the whole route. xref this post for more information.


9

(Here I'm trying to show why 四方を海に囲まれる is not direct passive. Please see this as an appendix to broccoliforest's answer and reply to KentaroTomono's comment.) First, OP's second sentence 四方が海に囲まれる is direct passive. Wikipedia defines「直接受身は、能動文における直接目的語または間接目的語を主語にするものである。」(source). Following this definition, a direct passive sentence is formed this way: ...


9

That's right. This kind of に won't always be replaceable with と, but in your case it basically is. From デジタル大辞泉: [接助]活用語の連体形に付く。 1 あとの叙述の前置きとして続ける意を表す。…と。…ところ。 「考えてみるに庶民のための政治は当分望めそうにない」 The に marks a lead-in to the main point which follows. その表情から察するに〜 Judging from the expression… 私が思うに〜 The way I think of it… 彼が言うに〜 According to him…


9

Both are grammatically correct, but they have different meanings. お寺で名前を登録する means "to register their names at the temple". The temple happens to be where they registered their names. Their names will be recorded in the list which may or may not be managed by the temple itself. お寺に名前を登録する means "to register their names with the temple". It's clear that ...


9

Short answer Here, 「綺麗に」 is like English beautifully. You use に for the same reason you use -ly in English. Long answer I wouldn't call に a 'particle' here. What it is depends on which analysis you're using: In the traditional Japanese grammar learned by students in Japanese schools (学校文法), na-adjectives are called 形容動詞, and they're taught that 形容動詞 ...


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