22

「にほん で ぼく は しんかんせん を のります。」 is a nice attempt. I would, however, like to address two items here. 「のります」 simply means "will ride". If you want to say "want to ride", you might want to say 「のりたいです」. 「Verb in Continuative Form + たい」 means "to want to [verb]". 「のり」 is the continuative form of 「のる」. The next thing I need to point out is the particle ...


18

Both 「[映画]{えいが}で[見]{み}る」 and 「映画に見る」 are correct and natural-sounding phrases but they have fairly different meanings from each other. 「映画で見る」 is the simpler and more often used of the two. If you saw a certain thing, town, car, house, actor, etc. in a movie, you 映画で those things を見た. Those tangible objects just physically appeared on the screen and you ...


17

It is very simple: A 間 B  means; All the time that A took place B was also happening. (I read my book while it was raining) A 間に B means; While A took place B happend. The nuance to appreciate is that B is an event that occurred (started & finished) at some point during the period A took place. It did not go on all the time. (While it was raining ...


15

This に is for listing things ("work or school"). The sentence is roughly the same as お仕事や学校を頑張って.


14

的 makes 世界 into a 形容動詞 ("na-adjective"), which, when functioning as adverb, turns into ~的に. ~的では is simply ungrammatical.


13

This に is not a location marker. In this article about the particle に: Source "Ni" indicates an agent or a source in passive or causative verbs. It translates into "by" or "from". 母にしかられた。 I was scolded by my mother. トムに英語を教えてもらった。 I was taught English by Tom. The verb in question, 見つかる, is categorized as a passive-like verb (受動詞)...


12

That's right. This kind of に won't always be replaceable with と, but in your case it basically is. From デジタル大辞泉: [接助]活用語の連体形に付く。 1 あとの叙述の前置きとして続ける意を表す。…と。…ところ。 「考えてみるに庶民のための政治は当分望めそうにない」 The に marks a lead-in to the main point which follows. その表情から察するに〜 Judging from the expression… 私が思うに〜 The way I think of it… 彼が言うに〜 According to him…


12

私に言われても is Suffering Passive (迷惑の受身), a kind of Indirect Passive Structure (間接受身構文), and 私が言われても is Direct Passive Structure (直接受身構文). 「(あなたが)私に言う」 (Active/能動) "You tell me." → Direct Passive: 「私が(あなたに)言われる」 "I am told (by you)." → Indirect Passive: 「(私が)(あなたに)私に*言われる」 "You tell me (and it affects me in some way)." This means "You do the action 私に言う (you ...


12

Adjectives can often be used 'adverbially' (though they are generally not analysed by Japanese grammarians as 副詞) by adding に rather than な or in this case の.


11

子供を本を読ませる is ungrammatical, and you have to say 子供に本を読ませる. Here are the basic rules for causation: For verbs which take を, the agent (or "causee") is marked with に. Such verbs are usually transitive verbs, but some intransitive verbs take を, too. For verbs which don't take を (i.e., most intransitive verbs), the agent is marked with を. In your question, 読む ...


11

The に form is the "base" sentence here, and the は is added for emphasis. One key to understanding how できる happens grammatically is that できる is often describing the thing that can be done, instead of the people or things doing the thing. Sometimes a closer gloss is doable rather than can -- English can describes the people or things doing the thing, while ...


11

まだ固いつぼみを見つけ出して、これにあたたかい春の風を送り、花に育てる The direct object of 育てる is left out. It's これ, i.e. まだ固いつぼみ, "firm buds". It's 「(これ(=まだ固いつぼみ)を)花に育てる」, "bring up (firm buds) into flowers". そこへゆくと、[まだ固いつぼみを見つけ出して、これにあたたかい春の風を送り、花に育てる]編集のしごとはそれ自体が一つの芸術である。 Means something along the lines of... In contrast, the work of editing [where you find firm buds, tend them ...


11

The ultimate answer to your question is "Japanese is different from English". I understand you want a reason, but there may not be a good reason. Some English transitive verbs are translated using a Japanese intransitive verb, and vice versa. For each verb, you have to remember the correct particle, one by one. Intransitive in English, Transitive in ...


10

This is an instance of the pattern VようにもBない 作ろう is what is often called the "volitional form" in English. The root verb is 作る [to make]. にも expresses "even though" and when joined to the volitional form makes a conditional "even if you wanted to V". Here, it means "even if you wanted to make some thing [to eat]" 材料 = ingredients in this context も何もない = ...


10

[他]{ほか} is a noun. And it can be used alone as a noun; example from 明鏡国語辞典: 「ここには[見当]{みあ}たらないから、どこか[他]{ほか}を[捜]{さが}そう。」 It can also be used adverbially; from 明鏡国語辞典: 「[会長]{かいちょう}[他]{ほか}[三名]{さんめい}が[出席]{しゅっせき}」 「[文書]{ぶんしょ}をもってする[他]{ほか}、[口頭]{こうとう}でも[説明]{せつめい}する」 Since 他 is a noun, 他の can modify nouns / noun phrases adjectivally... like 「[別]{べつ}の + [部屋]{...


10

逃げられたの 彼氏に!! As you've noticed, this is an inverted word order of: 彼氏に逃げられたの 逃げられた here is Suffering Passive (迷惑の受身), which is a kind of Indirect Passive (間接受身). As you know, in passive sentences the agent (動作主) of the action is marked with に. eg お母さんが私を褒める → 私がお母さんに褒められる. Here the agent of 逃げる is 彼氏, hence: 彼氏が逃げた (active) My boyfriend ran away. → ...


9

わかる is a potential verb. Potential verbs sometimes take に or には to contrast or emphasize their subjects. So 私にはわかります means ‘I know it while others probably do not.’ Examples are: 彼にできることなら私にもできる。 I can do what he can do. あなたに私の気持ちがわかる? Do you know how I feel? あの子には幽霊が見えるんだ。 That kid sees ghosts (while we don't).


9

「さっきから七夕{たなばた}に関係{かんけい}ねェもンばっかり吊{つ}りさがってやがるなぁ」 These days they only hang things which are unrelated to Tanabata. These days, on Tanabata, they only hang unrelated things. First off, both 「~~に関係ある/ない」 and 「~~と関係ある/ない」 are correct and used equally often. To say there is a difference in nuance would be nitpicking. Thus, in the sentence above, the 「に」 can be ...


9

For 座る, the place where (or object on which) one sits is marked with に. I would say that ~の近くで座る is unnatural ~の近くに座る is natural. Explanation Verbs which are inherently linked to a location — such as 行く, 住む, いる, etc. — have this location marked by に. Verbs for which the location is only circumstantial (i.e. additional information) — such as 食べる, 遊ぶ, 勉強する,...


9

寒さのために死んだ。 The のために means "due to~" "all because of~" "only/primarily for the reason of~". ~ために has a nuance of "the result was caused only/primarily for this reason", and its main clause, or apodosis, (「死んだ」 here) should usually be an unfavorable/unwelcomed result. The sentence can be rephrased as: 寒さのせいで死んだ。 「~のせいで~」「~のために~」 could have a blaming or ...


9

There is a huge difference. 「ここに書{か}いた」 In this phrase 「ここに」 refers to "on what object you wrote something". It could be in a notebook, on the chalk board, on the wall, etc. 「ここで書{か}いた」 This talks about where the act of writing took place. In the library? On the bus? In a cafe? Thus the two phrases are not interchangeable.


9

「高層{こうそう}ビルに何車線{なんしゃせん}もの道路{どうろ}。」 You clearly are unfamiliar with this use of 「に」. You are thinking of "at", "in", etc., which is why this phrase makes no sense to you. This phrase makes perfect sense and it is very natural-sounding. 「に」 here means "and", "in addition to", etc. That usage can be found even in Jisho. See definition #8 in: https://jisho....


9

As a native speaker, I also feel uncomfortable with 事故は先週に起こった, which can be said to be a little unnatural but probably cannot be said to be ungrammatical. 先週 plays the role of an adverb in this sentence, so its natural sentence will be: 事故は先週起こった。 But as a writer, I would like to avoid this, because I don't like the awkward sequence of Chinese characters ...


8

(Here I'm trying to show why 四方を海に囲まれる is not direct passive. Please see this as an appendix to broccoliforest's answer and reply to KentaroTomono's comment.) First, OP's second sentence 四方が海に囲まれる is direct passive. Wikipedia defines「直接受身は、能動文における直接目的語または間接目的語を主語にするものである。」(source). Following this definition, a direct passive sentence is formed this way: ...


8

Both are grammatically correct, but they have different meanings. お寺で名前を登録する means "to register their names at the temple". The temple happens to be where they registered their names. Their names will be recorded in the list which may or may not be managed by the temple itself. お寺に名前を登録する means "to register their names with the temple". It's clear that ...


8

Reason for using「は」 The「は」provides contrast. It provides an unspoken (in English) and contrasting parenthetical context as shown below. 日本語の読み書きは皆にはできません。 Not everyone can read and write Japanese (but some people can) Not just anyone can read and write Japanese (but many people can) Not all of (you) can read and write Japanese (but some of you can) ...


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