というの asks rhetorical questions (it's literally just と, 言う, and の). If your mom told you to keep studying for a long time you might say something like 死ぬまで勉強しろというのか "you want me to study until I die, is that it?!" Or, more literally "are you telling (言う) me to study until I die?!" As you can see it's a bit difficult to line up the tenses between the two ...
This とは is a simple combination of two independent particles. This と is a particle that marks a comparison target. This は is the topic/contrast marker. As you may know, the topic marker can directly follow から, まで, に, で, etc.
How is と used in these sentences? (See the last half of Chocolate's answer)
What about this combination of と and や
If you haven't ...
This ～の～の roughly translates to "such things like ～ and ～", and it's a way to list two or more things with a certain negative feeling. It often implies the listed items are unimportant, meaningless and/or annoying, just as when you'd use "told to do this or that". ～だの～だの is similar and often interchangeable with this ～の～の. (～だの～だの can be used with nouns, ...
They are criticizing, or find it funny that it is 懐中電灯なくても全然暗くない. It's a bit like writing *shrug*.
Similar examples include:
Out of all possible times, it chooses to break at this very moment *shrug*
I was like, who the hell are you lol
It's an invitation to agree to/sympathize with the speaker. Grammatically ...
The と here means as/like in the sense of A as B when comparing A to B. It's definition 3 in デジタル大辞泉:
It's definition 4 in デジタル大辞泉:
４ 動作・状態などの結果を表す。「有罪―決定した」「復讐 (ふくしゅう) の鬼―化した」
But honestly, I think it feels like it's used similarly to として.
The clause says "she who is respected as a mother"