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2

When it comes to particles, and I am speaking in general terms here, you shouldn't try to understand or memorize them by pairing them up or finding supposed equivalents, because that never works. Cross-linguistically, there is no equivalence in particles, prepositions, adverbs. Even those grammar terms vary cross-linguistically. In case you haven't noticed, ...


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All actions in the sentence are done by the samurai. The following is unnaturally verbose and possibly not grammatical but if we try to imagine it like this: 侍は一旦(侍が)護ると(侍が)決めたものは(侍が)死んでも(侍が)護る very literally: Samurai, once {(samurai will protect...)<-[if samurai decided]} something, even if (samurai) dies, (samurai) will protect. Or, more naturally: ...


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Probably, this person made a typo while trying to write 呼びタメという言葉を使っている or 呼びタメと言っている. 呼びタメを使っている makes little sense in that context (she's gotten keigo replies).


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It's also the listing-と. Originally, the standard way to say "A and B" was AとBと, using と twice. In modern Japanese, the second と is usually dropped, but it's still sometimes inserted for several reasons: To emphasize a comparison To make a sentence/title sound literary and sonorous (see the first link below for examples) To increase the ...


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