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The と here is sometimes called a "quotative" particle, as if it marks the end of a statement, which the rest of the sentence describes: 「急だ」​と[は]思わなかった。 The は here is used a bit like emphasis, and isn't strictly necessary from a grammatical perspective. Another way of looking at it is like the "that" coordinating conjunction in English: "I didn't think ...


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You could parse it this way... 士道は『もう何を言っても無駄』とつっこみを諦め、... The と is a quotative particle. It marks the thought of the subject (= 士道 here). 士道 gave up つっこみ, thinking 「もう何を言っても無駄」, and... These threads might help: Use of quote marker と before unusual verbs Embedded question followed by と Questions about 僕の時計が「7時だよ。おはよう。おきろ」と、起こしてくれるのだが、無意識に止めて、...


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You already seem to vaguely understand the difference, but to summarize: noun + ~を聞く = I hear [noun]: You hear a sound/music/story/etc. 窓が割れるのを聞いた means your heard the cracking noise. clause + ~と聞く = I hear that [clause]: You hear some fact (via conversations/news/etc). 窓が割れたと聞いた means you heard the news from someone but did not hear the noise itself. In ...


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