22

「にほん で ぼく は しんかんせん を のります。」 is a nice attempt. I would, however, like to address two items here. 「のります」 simply means "will ride". If you want to say "want to ride", you might want to say 「のりたいです」. 「Verb in Continuative Form + たい」 means "to want to [verb]". 「のり」 is the continuative form of 「のる」. The next thing I need to point out is the particle ...


19

Both 「[映画]{えいが}で[見]{み}る」 and 「映画に見る」 are correct and natural-sounding phrases but they have fairly different meanings from each other. 「映画で見る」 is the simpler and more often used of the two. If you saw a certain thing, town, car, house, actor, etc. in a movie, you 映画で those things を見た. Those tangible objects just physically appeared on the screen and you ...


15

Let's start with something common: 夢は夢だ。 'Dreams are dreams.' Let's negate it (using ではない instead of its contracted form じゃない): 夢は夢ではない。 'Dreams are not dreams.' は is a 係助詞{かかりじょし} ("binding particle"). Any 係助詞 fits in this spot. しか is also a 係助詞: 夢は夢でしかない。'Dreams are nothing but dreams.' The "modern" grammatical analysis of this stuff is that で ...


14

的 makes 世界 into a 形容動詞 ("na-adjective"), which, when functioning as adverb, turns into ~的に. ~的では is simply ungrammatical.


13

This でも means "〜 or something similar". So メシでも食べて means "eat some rice or something". The ででも in question is just the action-location-marker で plus the previous でも. So 舞台袖ででも大人しくして means "wait/behave quietly in the 舞台袖 (or somewhere)". (Not sure of the best translation for 舞台袖 -- literally the "wings of the stage", but maybe something like "off-stage" ...


10

What is the origin of these uses? Instrumental: contraction of case particle -ni and particle -te. In many cases (*), you can interpret this as ni + verb + -te. In your example, it could be 車に乗って大阪に行った. Locative: contraction of case particle -ni and particle -te. In many (*) cases, you can interpret this ni + verb + -te. In your example, it would be 図書館「に来て」...


10

The difference is that での shows the relationship to a following noun, just as the page says. 日本での研究 forms a single noun phrase ("research in Japan"), and this noun phrase as a whole is marked as a topic with は. In the other example, 大学院で isn't part of a noun phrase. Instead, it modifies the following predicate, (医学の研究を)する ("do medical research"). So it's ...


9

Both are grammatically correct, but they have different meanings. お寺で名前を登録する means "to register their names at the temple". The temple happens to be where they registered their names. Their names will be recorded in the list which may or may not be managed by the temple itself. お寺に名前を登録する means "to register their names with the temple". It's clear that ...


9

In this case, the particle で denotes method/means ('by means of', 'with', 'using', etc.) The difference is 'speak in Japanese' vs 'speak Japanese'. 日本語で上手に話せます。 One can (speak / talk with someone / say something) well in Japanese. 日本語が上手に話せます。 One can speak Japanese well. (= One is a good Japanese speaker). When someone says 日本語で話す, it means ...


9

For 座る, the place where (or object on which) one sits is marked with に. I would say that ~の近くで座る is unnatural ~の近くに座る is natural. Explanation Verbs which are inherently linked to a location — such as 行く, 住む, いる, etc. — have this location marked by に. Verbs for which the location is only circumstantial (i.e. additional information) — such as 食べる, 遊ぶ, 勉強する,...


9

There is a huge difference. 「ここに書{か}いた」 In this phrase 「ここに」 refers to "on what object you wrote something". It could be in a notebook, on the chalk board, on the wall, etc. 「ここで書{か}いた」 This talks about where the act of writing took place. In the library? On the bus? In a cafe? Thus the two phrases are not interchangeable.


8

"大声で" isn't an adverb, but rather a noun followed by the particle で, which indicates the means by which something is done. The difference is like the English "There was even a person who was singing in a loud voice while climbing the mountain" vs. "There was even a person who was singing loudly while climbing the mountain". "大声で" is better thought of as the ...


8

大英雄が無職で何が悪い。 A great hero is unemployed, and what's wrong (with that)? A great hero being unemployed, is there anything wrong? This で is not the particle で which usually means "with (a tool)", "by (a method)", "at (a place)", etc. This で is the te-form of the Japanese plain copula だ. It's the same で found in "私は学生で、あなたは会社員です" and "今日は日曜日で学校は休みだ". The ...


8

Both 家族で and 家族と are correct. で can sometimes mark an organization/group which makes some action, as if it were a subject. It's the third definition on デジタル大辞泉. 動作・作用を行う主体となる組織・団体を表す。「政府側―検討中だ」「気象庁―光化学スモッグ警報を発令した」 東京外国語大学言語モジュール treats this as an extension of で as a location marker, as follows: 10 場所を表わす用法の拡張として、主語を場所風に表わすときに用いることがあります。 ...


8

You are parsing the sentence incorrectly: The first part is: 沖縄県{おきなわけん}から本州{ほんしゅう}(まで)の // second part: 広{ひろ}い場所{ばしょ}で Translation: from Okinawa prefecture to Honshuu // in a wide area Putting it together, the full translation would thus be: As the typhoon approaches, there is a worry that there will be a lot of heavy rain in a wide area from Okinawa ...


8

I think you seem to be a little confused about the respective functions of に and で. While it's true that their use in the sentences you provided could be seen as altering the emphasis in some of the ways you suggested, this is not because they have the function of providing the same meaning with different emphasis. Neither of them inherently add any notable ...


8

Yes, you can replace 雨が原因で with 雨で, and it does not make the sentence silly or confusing at least in this case. No one will take で after 雨 as a place marker. Still, the longer version looks a little more organized, stiff or explicit to me. (English also has many similar pairs such as "to survive" vs "in order to survive".)


7

My suggestion is: And that's OK. No, I mean, it's better that way. As I understand it,「それでいい」 means that something is acceptable, but maybe not ideal, so I used "OK" instead of "good". 「それがいい」 means that this is the option that you like or want, so I think it has the feeling of "better than other options". I feel that the main point to express is that ...


7

Think about it like this: ピアニストです。 'is a pianist'    歌手です。 'is a singer' To negate this, we'll want to split です up into で+あります: ピアニストで あります。 'is a pianist'    歌手で あります。 'is a singer' Now we can negate あります and insert は to go with the negation: ピアニストでは ありません。 'is not a pianist'    歌手では ありません。 'is not a singer' To put these both in one ...


7

かけた as Current State This question is testing whether you understand how the seemingly past tense かけた can actually be describing the current state of a person. This kind of verb usage happens a lot with articles of clothing. The correct translation is not “who wore glasses”, but rather: The person beside me who is wearing glasses is Suzuki-san. ...


7

「Verb in [未然形]{みぜんけい} (Imperfective Form) + ないで」 expresses a soft-spoken prohibition. "Please don't forget." 「[忘]{わす}れ」 is the 未然形 of the verb 「忘れる」. The 未然形 is the form to which 「ない」 can be attached directly.


7

家族で should be taken as "as a family" rather than "with family" (Both と and で could be used, though IMHO, 家族で implies that all family members were present whereas 家族と implies you only went with some/maybe all family members.)


7

The で is the te-form of the copula (or, the continuative form of the assertive auxiliary) だ. [天帝の娘で][はたを織るのが上手だった]おり姫 Princess Ori, [who was the daughter of the Sky King and] [was skilled with the weaving] To turn this noun phrase into its non-relative equivalent: おり姫は、天帝の娘で、はたを織るのが上手だった。 Princess Ori was the daughter of the Sky King and was ...


7

そのホテルは安くて清潔なので、旅行者たちの間で人気がある。 The sentence sounds perfectly natural with で. 旅行者たちの間 is not the place 人気 exists. Actually, 人気 is present in そのホテル. Compare: その歌手は人気がある。 lit. As for the singer, there's popularity. / The singer has popularity. → The singer is popular. その選手は見込みがある。 lit. As for the player, there's prospect. / The player has ...


7

外へ遊びに行く (head outside to play) -> The implication here is that the actor is not currently outside, and will head out to play. 外で遊びに行く -> This sounds odd because it means that the actor "goes to play" when he's already outside. It's not really clear where he would be going, if anywhere. This is similar to saying something like, "go out outside" in ...


7

This で represents a relatively minor usage, which can be translated "at the point/stage", "at the time when", or "when in/at" (often with implicit contrast to some other points). 前回の微妙だった部分 unimpressive features of/in the previous (game) 前回で微妙だった部分 unimpressive features (existed) at the point of the previous (game) Of course, ...


6

Only the second sentence: 「世界で一番ゆうめいです。」 is correct and it means: "(Something/Someone) is the best-known in the world." 「世界の一番ゆうめいです。」 makes no sense. One could also say 「世界一ゆうめいです。」.


6

It is not particularly bookish or formal to say ~~の後で or ~~した後で, but it is true that the で gets omitted quite often in conversations. If one uses a で, one could emphasize the 後 part, stressing the fact that the action should be performed AFTER something, not before.


6

Adding も after で is possible and usual. See Particles で and も and でも. Adding でも after で is also possible, and ででも is not unseen, but the first で is often omitted.


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