31

怖い indeed means both "to be scary" and "to be scared" depending on the context. You may feel this is insane, but English has similar examples, too, so let me explain about this first. In English, "I am sad" means this person is feeling sorrow, but "The news is sad" does not mean this news is feeling sorrow. Why? Because "sad" has two distinct meanings, "to ...


27

Here's the English equivalents for the IPA: [ɡ] = the 'g' in 'get' [ŋ] = the 'ng' in 'sing' The main difference is that [ŋ] is a nasal consonant, whereas [ɡ] is not. If you try plugging your nose and pronouncing [ŋ], you'll realize that it's not possible. That's because air must flow through the nasal passage, but not the oral passage, for [ŋ]. The ...


19

We would say neither: 「この花は水をやられた。」 nor 「この花は水がやられた。」 for two reasons. These "sentences" sound far more unnatural and awkward to native speakers than you could probably imagine. Reason 1: While the "grammatical" passive-voice form of 「やる」 is certainly 「やられる」, the latter generally has a fairly negative connotation. "To have something undesirable ...


16

In this case, が is incorrect because you are conveying a known piece of information. When you describe a known or general fact about a subject (お寺), you have to mark it with は, making it the topic of the sentence. お寺は公園の隣です。 The temple is next to the park. (This is a known fact to you.) 鳥は飛べます。 Birds can fly. (This is a general fact.) Note ...


15

This is not as much of a newbie question as you might think. dainichi gave a good general rule-of-thumb, but at the risk of confusing you, I'd like to point out that there are many cases when を and が are actually interchangeable. For example, the sentence "I can play the piano" can be written either ピアノが弾【ひ】ける piano ga hikeru or ピアノを弾【ひ】ける piano ...


13

Flaw's answer is of course correct, but here's another way to look at it. Start with a simple sentence like this: 犬{いぬ}が好{す}きだ。 "I like dogs." Since the predicate is a na-adjective, 好きだ, the object (犬) needs to be marked by が. (Your second sentence is ungrammatical for this reason, btw.) Then, if you want to say something like "I like running.", you ...


13

Yes, your reasoning is correct. は/が is used to describe when the action happens to the thing itself. を is used to emphasize the (usually negative) effect of the action on the subject, optionally indicating the agent of the action with に. 弟にケーキを食べられた → My cake was eaten by my little brother (anger/aggravation implied). カバンを取られてしまった → My bag was ...


12

As @Flaw flawlessly explains, Japanese sentences can have clausal predicates. This is what causes what is commonly known as double-subject constructions, although I believe "clausal predicates" really illustrates the structure better. I assume you have heard constructions like 彼は髪が長い He has long hair Some teachers/textbooks might explain this away by ...


12

I think this is how: Consider first Clause1: 家賃が安い. The structure is Subject1+が+Predicate1. Subject1: 家賃 Predicate1: 安い Now consider Clause2: (都心より)郊外のほうが家賃が安い. The structure is Subject2+が+Predicate2, where Predicate2 is Clause1. Subject2: 郊外のほう Predicate2: 家賃が安い Predicate: The part of a sentence or clause saying something about the subject


12

It depends not only on the verb, but on the form of the verb. The general rule is that static verbs and adjectives take "ga" and "action verbs" take "o" on the direct object. piano-o hiku play the piano piano-ga hikeru can play the piano Here, playing the piano is an action, thus "o" is used. Being able to play the piano is a state, thus "ga" ...


12

後ろに山が has been coordinated with 前に海が: 町の [ 後ろに 山が、 ]    [ 前に  海が  ] あって、素敵な町です。 One possible way to describe it is like this: Start with the following: [ 町の後ろに 山があって、 ]    [ 町の前に  海があって、 ]     素敵な町です。 Pull out 町の from the left side: 町の [ __後ろに 山があって、 ]    [ __前に  海があって、 ]     素敵な町です。 Pull out あって from the right side: ...


12

I think you probably meant to write: 私は日本語が悪いです。(Lit. As for me, Japanese is bad.) 私の日本語は悪いです。(Lit. My Japanese is bad.) The word 悪い is a literal translation of the English 'bad'. In Japanese, you don't use 悪い to say you're not good at something. Instead, I recommend saying: 私は日本語が[下手]{へた}です。(Lit. As for me, Japanese is poor/unskillful.) 私は日本語が[上手]...


12

「私は日本語を勉強したい理由」 This is a nice try, but the 「は」 needs to be replaced by a 「が」. 「は」 is not an option here. Why not? That is because 「私が日本語を勉強したい」 is a relative clause that modifies 「理由」, correct? Inside if-clauses and relative clauses, the subject/topic marker is always 「が」. We say: 「ジョーンズさんが買った車はBMWです。」 「あなたが日本に行くなら、私もいっしょに行きたい。」 The 「が」 in either ...


11

When you use "say" or "言う", the content of the speech is the most important. The existence of the physical sound/voice is not usually important, nor necessary. Dictionaries say so. 彼はブログで、そう言っていた。(≒彼のブログに、そう書いてあった。) On the other hand, when we use "声が出る" (intransitive) or "声を出す" (transitive), the existence of the physical sound is the most ...


11

Yes. 見える (divalent) A が B に見える "A is visible to B". 大切なものは目に見えない。 What is essential is invisible to the eye. (divalent) A が B に見える "A looks (like) B". 「でつ」がスヌーピーの顔に見える。 "でつ" looks like Snoopy's face. (monovalent) A が見える "A can see things". [吸血鬼]{きゅう・けつ・き}は夜でも見える。 Vampires have night vision.


11

You are correct and that website is incorrect on this matter. Upon hearing/reading the sentence: 「​魚 {さかな} ​が​好 {す} ​きじゃない​人 {ひと} ​は、​肉 {にく} ​が​好 {す} ​きだ。 」 Practically all Japanese-speakers will take the 「人」 to mean "people in general". It is just extremely unnatural to form that sentence when the speaker/writer is referring to one ...


11

According to 明鏡国語辞典, the が is a conjunctive particle (接続助詞), and it expresses 逆接の仮定条件 (contradictory hypothetical condition? "even if~"/"no matter~~") when attached to the volitional auxiliaries 「う・よう」「まい」. Examples: 人が何と言おうが、私はやる。(言おうと(も)) No matter what others may say, I'll do it. 私がどこに行こうが、君には関係ない。 (行こうと(も)) No matter where I go, it's ...


10

Particles have multiple uses or meanings. が can be used to mark the subject. However 好き【すき】 is an adjective not a verb. In this case が marks the target of 好き【すき】 which is cats. 1) 私は猫が好き 2) 猫は私が好き The pattern of these sentences is: Topic は target of adjective が adjective I(topic) like(adjective) cats(target of adjective). Cats(topic) like(adjective)...


10

「何, どこ, だれ, いつ etc. + ~~(よ)うが」 「何, どこ, だれ, いつ etc. + ~~(よ)うと(も)」 「何, どこ, だれ, いつ etc. + ~~ても」 mean "No matter what, where, who, etc. ~~". For example: 何を言おうが / 何を言おうと(も) / 何を言っても (No matter what ~~ say, ...) どこに行こうが / どこに行こうと(も) / どこに行っても (No matter where ~~ go, ...) 何があろうが / 何があろうと(も) / 何があっても (No matter what happens, ...) 何を頼まれようが / 何を頼まれようと(...


10

A:「お風呂好きが珍しいじゃん」 B:「お風呂好きがお風呂に行{い}かないのは/お風呂に入{はい}らないのは珍しいじゃん」 "A" is an abbreviated expression from "B". In this case, the substantial contents of the phrase itself is omitted. This kind of abbreviation is frequently used in daily conversations like: 1-1 あなたのようなお風呂{ふろ}嫌{ぎら}いが珍{めずら}しいね。 2-1 お風呂嫌いが珍しいね。 3-1 勉強{べんきょう}嫌いが珍しいね。 4-1 お肉{にく}好{ず}きが変{へん}...


10

"Aがこわい" commonly means "A is horrible(scary)", "I am scared of A". So 私がこわい is commonly interpreted as "I am horrible(scary)". For example, 昨日、友達に意地悪をしてしまった。私がこわい. If you want to say "I am scared", you can say "私はこわい", "私はこわがっている". However, "Aはこわい" can mean both "A is horrible(scary)" and "A is scared", so if you clearly want to mean ""A is scared", you ...


9

This is a great question, and one of which I'm not sure I fully understand the nuances. But here goes: What I learned in my first Japanese class was the は/が for basic things like this: あの人は日本語がわかる → That guy understands Japanese. 友達は子供が3人います → My friend has 3 children. だれがこれが出来るか → Who can do this? Then I heard some people start using に and I ...


9

It may help to understand the nature of: the は particle (topic marker), the nature of the が particle (subject marker), and the fact that 好き is an adjective, not a verb. Japanese is what is known as a topic prominent language. In English, no distinction is made between the topic of a sentence and the subject. In Japanese, however, they serve two different ...


9

(Here I'm trying to show why 四方を海に囲まれる is not direct passive. Please see this as an appendix to broccoliforest's answer and reply to KentaroTomono's comment.) First, OP's second sentence 四方が海に囲まれる is direct passive. Wikipedia defines「直接受身は、能動文における直接目的語または間接目的語を主語にするものである。」(source). Following this definition, a direct passive sentence is formed this way: ...


9

In this case, the particle で denotes method/means ('by means of', 'with', 'using', etc.) The difference is 'speak in Japanese' vs 'speak Japanese'. 日本語で上手に話せます。 One can (speak / talk with someone / say something) well in Japanese. 日本語が上手に話せます。 One can speak Japanese well. (= One is a good Japanese speaker). When someone says 日本語で話す, it means ...


9

が for possession was more common in old Japanese. But it's rare today and it only remains in proverbs (e.g. [人間]{にんげん}[万事]{ばんじ}[塞翁]{さいおう}が[馬]{うま}) and other fixed phrases. One exception is [我]{わ}が. Usages as follows is common today. 我が社, 我が国, 我が母校, etc. 我が物顔 [我]{わ}が[家]{や} 我が is still old-fashioned has a bit arrogant nuance, so if someone is using 我が ...


9

私は地震が怖い。lit. As for me, earthquakes are scary. → I am scared of earthquakes. Your sentence is correct and natural. が is used with several adjectives that indicate one's feelings, e.g. 「怖い」「欲しい」「つらい」「楽しい」「恐ろしい」「悲しい」「うれしい」「うらやましい」「憎い」「愛しい」 (i-adjectives) 「好きだ」 「嫌いだ」「いやだ」「心配だ」「面倒だ」「楽しみだ」 (na-adjectives) etc. Examples: 「僕は自転車が欲しい。」 I want a bicycle. 「...


9

That が is not needed. いっぱくいくら is an example of the "X per Y" pattern which does not require が. You can also say: このホテルは いっぱくで いくら ですか? (で marks a "condition") このホテルは いっぱくにつき いくら ですか? (~につき explicitly means "per ~") Using が may be not be entirely wrong, but I feel it's less natural than the other options.


8

The nominalisation occurs with just の. を and が are case markers and the choice between them depends on the other part of the sentence; whether a verb that assigns a を argument is used, or a verbal nominal adjective (such as 好き that takes が for object marking1), or a stative clause. Verb: 宿題をするのを忘れた Verbal Nominal Adjective: 水を飲むのが好きです Stative verb: ...


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