32

怖い indeed means both "to be scary" and "to be scared" depending on the context. You may feel this is insane, but English has similar examples, too, so let me explain about this first. In English, "I am sad" means this person is feeling sorrow, but "The news is sad" does not mean this news is feeling sorrow. Why? Because "sad" has two distinct meanings, "to ...


16

In this case, が is incorrect because you are conveying a known piece of information. When you describe a known or general fact about a subject (お寺), you have to mark it with は, making it the topic of the sentence. お寺は公園の隣です。 The temple is next to the park. (This is a known fact to you.) 鳥は飛べます。 Birds can fly. (This is a general fact.) Note ...


11

It may help to understand the nature of: the は particle (topic marker), the nature of the が particle (subject marker), and the fact that 好き is an adjective, not a verb. Japanese is what is known as a topic prominent language. In English, no distinction is made between the topic of a sentence and the subject. In Japanese, however, they serve two different ...


11

Yes. 見える (divalent) A が B に見える "A is visible to B". 大切なものは目に見えない。 What is essential is invisible to the eye. (divalent) A が B に見える "A looks (like) B". 「でつ」がスヌーピーの顔に見える。 "でつ" looks like Snoopy's face. (monovalent) A が見える "A can see things". [吸血鬼]{きゅう・けつ・き}は夜でも見える。 Vampires have night vision.


11

According to 明鏡国語辞典, the が is a conjunctive particle (接続助詞), and it expresses 逆接の仮定条件 (contradictory hypothetical condition? "even if~"/"no matter~~") when attached to the volitional auxiliaries 「う・よう」「まい」. Examples: 人が何と言おうが、私はやる。(言おうと(も)) No matter what others may say, I'll do it. 私がどこに行こうが、君には関係ない。 (行こうと(も)) No matter where I go, it's ...


10

When you use "say" or "言う", the content of the speech is the most important. The existence of the physical sound/voice is not usually important, nor necessary. Dictionaries say so. 彼はブログで、そう言っていた。(≒彼のブログに、そう書いてあった。) On the other hand, when we use "声が出る" (intransitive) or "声を出す" (transitive), the existence of the physical sound is the most ...


10

I think you probably meant to write: 私は日本語が悪いです。(Lit. As for me, Japanese is bad.) 私の日本語は悪いです。(Lit. My Japanese is bad.) The word 悪い is a literal translation of the English 'bad'. In Japanese, you don't use 悪い to say you're not good at something. Instead, I recommend saying: 私は日本語が[下手]{へた}です。(Lit. As for me, Japanese is poor/unskillful.) 私は日本語が[上手]...


10

"Aがこわい" commonly means "A is horrible(scary)", "I am scared of A". So 私がこわい is commonly interpreted as "I am horrible(scary)". For example, 昨日、友達に意地悪をしてしまった。私がこわい. If you want to say "I am scared", you can say "私はこわい", "私はこわがっている". However, "Aはこわい" can mean both "A is horrible(scary)" and "A is scared", so if you clearly want to mean ""A is scared", you ...


10

The difference between transitive verbs and intransitive verbs is in how verbs relate to their objects. It is true that 「が」is used with intransitive verbs, but the problem we're dealing with here is not about verb/object, it's about subject/verb. Which is to say, one of the main functions of 「が」is also to mark the subject of a verb. Since the first ...


9

が for possession was more common in old Japanese. But it's rare today and it only remains in proverbs (e.g. [人間]{にんげん}[万事]{ばんじ}[塞翁]{さいおう}が[馬]{うま}) and other fixed phrases. One exception is [我]{わ}が. Usages as follows is common today. 我が社, 我が国, 我が母校, etc. 我が物顔 [我]{わ}が[家]{や} 我が is still old-fashioned has a bit arrogant nuance, so if someone is using 我が ...


9

Where do you have to set the topic or subject markers "wa" and "ga" in sentences with several clauses? Somewhere before the predicate the subject corresponds to. To put it very simply, Japanese sentences with more than one clause would look something like this: S1 (S2 (S3 P3) P2) P1 (typically found in complex sentences involving relative clauses) S1 P1, ...


9

A:「お風呂好きが珍しいじゃん」 B:「お風呂好きがお風呂に行{い}かないのは/お風呂に入{はい}らないのは珍しいじゃん」 "A" is an abbreviated expression from "B". In this case, the substantial contents of the phrase itself is omitted. This kind of abbreviation is frequently used in daily conversations like: 1-1 あなたのようなお風呂{ふろ}嫌{ぎら}いが珍{めずら}しいね。 2-1 お風呂嫌いが珍しいね。 3-1 勉強{べんきょう}嫌いが珍しいね。 4-1 お肉{にく}好{ず}きが変{へん}...


9

That が is not needed. いっぱくいくら is an example of the "X per Y" pattern which does not require が. You can also say: このホテルは いっぱくで いくら ですか? (で marks a "condition") このホテルは いっぱくにつき いくら ですか? (~につき explicitly means "per ~") Using が may be not be entirely wrong, but I feel it's less natural than the other options.


8

Particles have multiple uses or meanings. が can be used to mark the subject. However 好き【すき】 is an adjective not a verb. In this case が marks the target of 好き【すき】 which is cats. 1) 私は猫が好き 2) 猫は私が好き The pattern of these sentences is: Topic は target of adjective が adjective I(topic) like(adjective) cats(target of adjective). Cats(topic) like(adjective)...


8

In this case, the particle で denotes method/means ('by means of', 'with', 'using', etc.) The difference is 'speak in Japanese' vs 'speak Japanese'. 日本語で上手に話せます。 One can (speak / talk with someone / say something) well in Japanese. 日本語が上手に話せます。 One can speak Japanese well. (= One is a good Japanese speaker). When someone says 日本語で話す, it means ...


8

僕が好きな動物 actually can mean both, the animal that I like and the animal that likes me. But to mean the former it often becomes 僕の好きな動物, and to mean the latter it often becomes 僕のことが好きな動物 or 僕を好きな動物. In reality, you wouldn't run into such ambiguous phrases frequently. But when you do encounter phrases like 僕が好きな動物, its interpretation purely depends on the ...


8

「何, どこ, だれ, いつ etc. + ~~(よ)うが」 「何, どこ, だれ, いつ etc. + ~~(よ)うと(も)」 「何, どこ, だれ, いつ etc. + ~~ても」 mean "No matter what, where, who, etc. ~~". For example: 何を言おうが / 何を言おうと(も) / 何を言っても (No matter what ~~ say, ...) どこに行こうが / どこに行こうと(も) / どこに行っても (No matter where ~~ go, ...) 何があろうが / 何があろうと(も) / 何があっても (No matter what happens, ...) 何を頼まれようが / 何を頼まれようと(...


8

The particle が is referred to as a subject marker because that's what it is. It marks the subject of a sentence. That's its primary purpose. Even in two of the four sentences you provided, it's quite clearly marking the subject of the verb います. Don't get confused because the "sister" and "cat" are both objects in the most natural English translation of ...


8

私は地震が怖い。lit. As for me, earthquakes are scary. → I am scared of earthquakes. Your sentence is correct and natural. が is used with several adjectives that indicate one's feelings, e.g. 「怖い」「欲しい」「つらい」「楽しい」「恐ろしい」「悲しい」「うれしい」「うらやましい」「憎い」「愛しい」 (i-adjectives) 「好きだ」 「嫌いだ」「いやだ」「心配だ」「面倒だ」「楽しみだ」 (na-adjectives) etc. Examples: 「僕は自転車が欲しい。」 I want a bicycle. 「...


8

欲しいが仮眠する is plainly wrong if it's intended to mean "I want to take a nap". It can mean "I want it, but I'll take a nap (for now)" depending on the context. However, the following sentences make sense: アズリムが可愛いんじゃない、可愛いがアズリムなんだ It's not that Azulim is cute, but that (being) cute is (being) Azulim! (i.e., Azulim is the only person who deserves the word cute.)...


8

First things first. こわい means "to be scary". It's not a verb. It's an i-adjective, which means it describes a state of something, hence the inclusion of "to be". So 私がこわい means "I'm scary" (to be exact, I think it's: "[Who is scary?] I am the scary one") rather than "I'm scared". That could be: 私はこわい which is using the topic particle は and the so-called "...


8

At the very core of your sentence, the parsing is as follows: 血糖値が[Number]しか上がらなかった。The blood sugar only rose by [Number]. All the other stuff is just details which modify that core statement in some respect. Let's add in some extra details to the core statement. 血糖値が77ミリグラムしか上がらなかった。 The blood sugar only rose by 77mg. Now you can add in a clause ...


8

So I think you got the general gist of the sentence. But, you translate: ビール一杯の「やけざけ」 as one beer as in binge-drinking I'm not sure why you said that, but the の just acts in its normal fashion. I think you should consider it as something like one beer of binge-drinking Then the parenthetical comment of とも言えないが can be understood as something like ...


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