(I know what "から" and the sentence-ending "か" mean, but not this)
Yes, it's this から followed by this か. から here is a reason/cause marker. か is a question marker but is used like "presumably" or "probably" here. And 興奮 is "excitement", not "doubtful interest".
興奮から: due to his excitement, ...
興奮からか: presumably due to his excitement, ...; ...
を is always an object marker in modern Japanese. It never replaces personal pronouns. Where did you see such a rule?
noun + を at the end of a sentence is a fairly common device found in lyrics, slogans, posters and such. In general, it often means "I/We want/need ～" or "Give ～".
彼女にお茶を。 (lit. "(we need) Tea to her") Serve her a cup of tea.
Here are the original lyrics:
The から in the first line simply means "because", and the first line works as the reason for the second line. "Because I will ride the first train when dawn breaks, please arrange a ticket (for me)." or "I will ride the first train when dawn ...
While the second one is relatively a bit politer than the first, neither of these are very casual nor polite. If you said these directly to the host of the party, the host would probably feel offended. If you said these to your close friend, he/she would feel that the "～でした" part is unnaturally ...
In a sense, yes, but に is the correct choice here. 受ける takes two objects, a "direct" and an "indirect" object.
を marks the direct object, i.e. what is being received
に marks the indirect object, i.e. from whom the direct object is being received
を will not be translated at all, and に will be translated as "from". から, too, ...
You should think of this like から+か. If there wasn't a か, the following would just be a statement of a fact. The から is used to give the reason for the unusual fluency of the foreigner (in this case it is because the foreigner was excited/agitated).
With the か, the speaker is no longer certain for the reason. The speaker is now ...
Is it に indicating time?
No. ～にする has several meanings, and here it means "to choose~~" or "to decide on~~", not "to do at [point in time]". The に here cannot be "at (point of time)", since the に for "at [point in time]" cannot be used with から; you don't say 「～てからに + Verb」「*大学を出てからに働く」 to mean "Verb + ...
According to 明鏡国語辞典:
The conjunctive particle から at the end of a sentence can express a feeling of 注意・警告・慰め (cautioning, warning, comforting/cheering up). Here in your context the から is not "because" or "so", but expresses soft/mild 注意 or 警告, adding a nuance of "~~, ...
When a series of actions is listed with the verbs in the ～て conjunctive form, the list can parse out to "[VERB], then [VERB], then [VERB]..."
Years ago, a friend of mine at work laughed after getting off the phone with his wife, when he realized that she'd explained her day using almost entirely ～て-form verbs. My memory is fuzzy, but it was something like,
That use of と should be conceptualized as “with”, and not “from”.
“Xと離れる” is “to separate with X”. Since you can both separate with and separate from something, both と and から work here (albeit with the subtle difference between “separating with” and “separating from” something).
“Xから聞く” is “to hear from X”. Replacing this with と would change the ...
In the sentence
に indicates the recipient of the phone call. It would be very confusing if you suddenly tried to indicate the caller with に as well. に and から are not both viable options to indicate the caller, because に is already used to indicate the recipient.
If you used に to indicate the caller, it would be like trying to say "I got a ...
I'm going take a different tack on this from everyone else.
If you go back to earlier Indo-European languages such as Latin, but more so like Sanskrit, you see a very similar use of the ablative case to express both the idea of "from" and "because". There are still vestiges of this in English when we say something along the lines of
From what I've seen,....
This から is the same から that indicates origin or source, which often translates to the English word from.
Here 私から means 私 is the initiator of the action of "talking to her properly".
In this case, on the surface level it may not be that much different from the subject marker が, and so the sentence can justly be translated to "I'll have a proper talk with ...
Many usage examples of 真っ昼間 involve drinking alcohol during the daytime. According to this page, it is stated that it is typically used to describe an action or occurrence that is not normally done during the daytime, often with a judgmental (or surprised) tone. This definition is more in accordance with the use of から than に, as in 'from such a time as would ...
Both ～に始まる and ～から始まる are possible; it's just that they emphasize different things.
Xに始まる emphasizes the precise time that something begins, with the focus being on that specific point. The particle に pinpoints that exact moment as a temporal identifier of the stated event X.
Xから始まる emphasizes the fact that there is a span of time which started from a ...
I think you need to look at the nature and type of verb.
かかる is an intransitive verb of direction ("virtual motion" in cyber space) and the sentence describes the direction of the subject, the telephone call: It is natural to describe the starting and finishing points with から and に.
It would be different if this were a transitive verb, or an action being ...
I think it has something to do with the proceeding sentence.
If you compare 「昨日は寝れませんでした。」 to 「函館山からの夜景を見るといいですよ。」 (from the example referenced in Enno's post), the latter is a suggestion, while the former is a fact.
Making up some other examples with "suggestions", 「彼と会ったほうがいいと思いますよ。とてもいい人ですから。」 and 「その授業は取らないほうがいいと思いますよ。先生がとても怖い人ですから。」 seem fine as well.