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9

Can adverbs modify adjectives? Yes. That's part of what adverbs do. Consider: [と]{●}[て]{●}[も]{●}赤【あか】い車【くるま】 a very red car [ま]{●}[ぶ]{●}[し]{●}[く]{●}明【あか】るい青空【あおぞら】 a dazzlingly bright blue sky Is 大きく modifying 厳しい? No. At least, not directly. In your sample sentence, as you correctly parsed it, the 大【おお】きく is not being used as a direct modifier on ...


8

信じようとしていただけかも知れない Pulling it apart Let's break this down. 信じようとしていた In turn, this phrase is: 信じよう The volitional of 信じる. と The particle. して する in the conjunctive ~て form. いた いる in the past tense / completed aspect. The main meaning here is "had been trying to believe". The construction [VERB: volitional]とする parses out to "try to [VERB]". だけ "...


8

みあ stands for meow, the sound tone of the cat. そのとき、腕の中でしどけなく溶けていた猫が急に身を固くしてみあ、と鳴いて。 The whole sentence means Suddenly, the cat, which was just lying liquidly in man's arm, quickly restored its body, and "meow"-ed out. (forgive my poor translation -w-||)


7

均等【きんとう】 has both noun and -na adjective uses. In this particular context, we could interpret this term either way. As a noun: ...均等【きんとう】    に 切【き】って、 ...equal parts [IN] cut, → ... cut in equal parts, As an adjective (with the に acting adverbially): ...均等【きんとう】 に  切【き】って、 ...equal[ly] cut, → ... cut equally / uniformly, The ...


7

The verb in this sentence is 助かる【たすかる】 ("to be saved"). 借りる【かりる】 ("to borrow") is irrelevant. シェリーちゃんが助かりますよーに! I hope Sherry will be saved! シェリーちゃん: Sherry(-chan) が: (subject marker) 助かります: masu-form of the intransitive verb 助かる ("to be saved") よーに: a casual/slangy rendering of ように, which is used to make a wish. See: ending sentences with ように and How ...


7

全部 here works as an adverb. It's functioning the same way as in... 髪を全部まとめる ケーキを全部食べる 「[束]{たば}にする」 means "put ~~ together". This 束 is like "a group/bunch (of people)". cf: 「束になる」 子供たちが束になって掛かってきた。 The children「attacked me in a group [⦅口⦆ganged up on me]. (プログレッシブ和英中辞典) I think かなう ([敵]{かな}う) here means "match" "equal" or "compare" (「[匹敵]{...


6

In this particular case, both この自然が多い町 and 自然が多いこの町 refer to the same thing, and they are interchangeable. In many other cases, however, placing この at a distant place may introduce a difference in meaning: 魚が美味しいこの町 This town where fish are delicious この魚が美味しい町 The town where this (particular) fish is delicious 妻と出会ったこの町 this town where I met my wife ...


6

I can't understand why and how come both modifiers are put together directly in this fashion: 自然が多いこの町... In the phrase 「自然が多いこの町」, 自然が多い is a relative clause that modifies この町. [自然が多い]この町 This town [which has a lot of nature /which is rich in nature] < Its non-relative version is: この町は、自然が多い。 This town is rich in nature. Is it possible to join ...


5

母から見れば、私が我慢ならない means "In my mother's eyes, I am unbearable." As you know, 我慢(が)ならない means 我慢できない (or 耐えられない). These are interchangeable in most cases. ならない means できない in some fixed phrases, eg 油断ならない, 聞き捨てならない. 我慢ならない, 油断ならない sound a tiny bit more formal/literary than ~できない. You can use it this way: 私(に)は彼の態度が我慢ならない/我慢できない His attitude is ...


5

いきなり is an adverb meaning "out of nowhere", "all of the sudden". Forget "without warning" for now. It plainly modifies 言い出す as an adverb. 言い出す is the first verb after いきなり, so it cannot be simpler. 何を is "what". 何 is the object of 言い出す. 言い出す is "to start saying", "to bring up (a topic)". Its subject is the girl. か is the question marker. と思えば is the plain ...


5

It's a kind of plant, オトコエシ, plus the non-exhaustive listing particle や.


5

It's the first one. Simply put, the second one doesn't make any sense. I can't come up with any kind of reasonable explanation for why something would be written that way, nor have I ever seen the stem of いただける used as a noun. Frankly only after reading this question did I even realize that there were dictionary entries for いただける specifically, since it ...


4

They are slightly different, if not much. The former sounds saying a fact relatively objectively. On the other hand, the latter rather means "although an apple was on the plate, s/he stole it" and it sounds somehow accusive in the sense that it should have been there. In grammar for old Japanese, a similar form is considered a conjunction. When are head-...


4

As rapier notes, さえ roughly means "even, also" and functions in Japanese a bit like a stronger version of も. The さえ particle derives from the verb 添【そ】える "to add on to something else, to attach to something else". If you want to use this particle, it should go in the same place you'd put the も. You can even use them together, in which case the さえ comes ...


4

I see that Weblio has an entry for this spelling. They suggest that this is an alternative spelling for ぬくい or ぬるい. Sense 3 is given as "slow; stupid", which would seem to fit your context.


4

There is a negative volitional. It's ~まい and it's not super common outside some fixed patterns like あろうことかあるまいことか 子供じゃあるまいし However, it doesn't apply here anyways as that's not the grammar that's happening here. By the way, Jisho made a parsing mistake: the negative form of 障む is 障まない. The main issue is that you seem to be parsing the sentence ...


4

(ら)れる has both a potential meaning and a passive meaning (along with other two less common meanings). For example, 食べられる means both "to be able to eat" and "to be eaten". In your sentence, れる has a potential meaning. 終わる: (simple intransitive verb) "to end" 終わらせる: [causative] "to make something end" (i.e., "to finish something") 終わらせられる: [causative-...


4

Um, you know about Japanese relative clauses, right? If not, I have to say this novel is too difficult for you yet. When you see a verb before a noun, it usually means there is a relative clause involved, although there are a few exceptions. The main clause of this sentence is: 言葉が出てこない。 Words will not come out. (i.e., I'm at a loss for words.) This ...


4

どちら With some annotations it should be 王の身辺警護は基本的に親衛隊が行っている。 これは騎士団とどちらが上というものでもなく、単純に (親衛隊と騎士団は) 役割を分担している。 ただし王の護衛という重要な役目であり、当然ながら (親衛隊を) 構成する騎士は選りすぐりのエリートばかりだ。 The first sentence mentions mainly to the King's elite bodyguards (a group of elite knights). In the second sentence, next to first one, mentions to another group of knights. どちら ...


4

It's not a typo. This みあ should be a variation of みゃあ or にゃあ ("meow"), and と is a quotative particle. It will be read like: 猫が急に身を固くして、 The cat suddenly went rigid, 「みあ」と鳴いて。 and said "meow".


4

This 紛れもなく is like an adverb, but I think it is modifying not a single word but an entire clause, like English disjunct (also known as sentence adverbs). This 紛れもなく is emphasizing 今この瞬間が全て as a whole. A similar example is: 間違いなく彼は犯人だ。 = 彼は間違いなく犯人だ。 He is definitely the culprit. Note that the ku-form of an adjective can also modify another adjective, ...


4

I think they meant to say... 「~~時には、・・・終わっていた。」 "By the time~~, had (already) done... / had (already) gone through..." 物置から出してもらった時には、Aし、Bし、Cも終わっていた。 "By the time he (=Harry) was finally forgiven and allowed to come out of his cupboard... Dudley had already done A, B, and C." でも、あんまり美しい日本語(翻訳)じゃないような気がします。。。


3

悪夢から一夜明け、アインのもとで訓練を重ねる日々が始まった。 The から is a 助詞(particle), meaning "after~" (or "from~" "since~"). (The plural suffix ら should be attached to a noun or pronoun.) Is the reason the dictionary claims のもとで/もと is a noun I don't think they claim のもとで is a noun. They're saying もと (下) is a noun, and that ~のもとで can be used to mean "under~~". I think you could ...


3

思い出でする means "to do something as(because of) a memory", this で is a postpositional particle that is used for "cause", "reason". For example, 彼女と初デートの場所でキスを思い出でしたい. 思い出です means "Something is a memory", です is a copula. 思い出でした can mean the both meanings. For example, 彼女と初デートの場所で、キスを思い出でした(I kissed my girl friend at the our first date place as a memory), ...


3

そうな is indeed そう + particle な, where the な here is the same noun-modifying な as in 綺麗な or 静かな. しのげ is the stem of しのげる, the potential form of verb 凌【しの】ぐ, "to get through something, to endure something, to put up with something". So しのげそうな = しのげ "can get through, can endure" そう "seems like" な (modifier particle) Looking at the first half of your sample ...


3

しのぐ (dictionary form) "to endure"/"to stave off"/"keep out" etc..この寒さをしのぐ = keep out this cold. しのげる = potential form of しのぐ = able to keep out しのげそうな = attributive form of そうだ added to masu-stem of verb = seem to be able to keep out.


3

First, you should not ignore てくる. This sentence lacks a personal pronoun, but it clearly indicates 笑顔と台詞 is returning toward the MC, i.e., she replied with a smile. Second, 全国1000万の妹好きを下僕に出来るだろう is a relative clause that modifies 笑顔と台詞, which serves as the subject of 下僕に出来る. Don't be misguided by the comma. Third, AをBに出来る is a potential version of AをBにする ("...


2

First off, I don't think the kanji you identified is acting as its own word, my hunch is that the actual word you are looking for is 「助{たす}かります」. This is an intransitive verb that means to be saved, to be escape harm, or to be helped. see jsiho. The injection of a non-relative-temporal noun right before a verb without a particle when more polite -ます form ...


2

Let's look more closely at the core pieces you're struggling with. Chunk 1 Reading 私が我慢ならず I thought it means something like "I can't/couldn't tolerate", since the が marks 私 as subject, but from the translation it seems to be the mother. Your interpretation isn't quite right here. が does indeed mark 私 as the subject, but it would only mean "I can't ...


2

'Schlep' or 'drag' are probably more appropriate here than 'prolong' or 'influence'. A noticed that B(?) had a lot on her mind regarding things at work, she had 'dragged her problems home', rather than 'leaving them at the office'. Another sentence in the same vein: 日本人が日本語の構文を引きずったまま英語を書くと、しばしば冗長で複雑な英文が生まれる。 When Japanese write in English and drag ...


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