17

First, concurring with Axioplase: だく is for tangible things, いだく is for abstract things. (Daijisen has a usage note under 抱える that deals with this distinction.) With regards to your second question, yes, だく can have the connotation of "sleep with" (second sense in the Daijisen definition for 抱く). It's a somewhat "nicer" way to say "sleep with" in the sense ...


16

If you hit the end of line, and you're out of space, yes, you can freely split kanji and their okurigana. I have a novel right in front of me that does it two lines in a row on the second page: 彼女と初 // めて会った 思 // い出してみるがいいよ. Wikipedia says that the rules governing line-splitting in Japanese are called 禁則【きんそく】処理【しょり】, and there are slight variations in ...


14

Yes, it's possible if the 連用形{れんようけい} of the first verb does not have okurigana. For example: 見{み}る → 見- → 見上{みあ}げる 着{き}る → 着- → 着始{きはじ}める 寝{ね}る → 寝- → 寝落{ねお}ちる And so on. Even in cases when the compound verb does have middle okurigana, it may be omitted for brevity, e.g. especially in newspapers. With nouns created from such verbs even the ending ...


14

Well, first, I think that うだく is archaic, as I read it: 〔上代語「むだく」の転で、「だく」の古形。平安鎌倉時代の漢文訓読にだけ見える語〕 Then, だく seems to be use for concrete situations, when you really use your hands. いだく seems to be a more literary reading, or used in abstract situations, like 「理想を―・く」「不安を―・く」. This is exactly your sentence, isn't it? Sources: on-line dictionaries and ...


10

Both are different spellings of ありがとう, neither is more formal, although all three spellings may be differentiated by frequency (see below). ありがとう "thank you" may be derived from ありがたい through sound change; ありがたい is a compound of 有る and 難い. In forming compounds, the first verb conjugates to the ren'yōkei (= "masu-stem"). In compound verbs, like 有り得る or ...


8

General As had been pointed out, as a general rule, that part of the word - in terms of kana syllables - that changes or inflects is written with okurigana. See also 「送り仮名の付け方『国語を書き表すための送り仮名の付け方のよりどころ」』・単独の語1・活用のある語・通則1」, which states as a general principle that the inflectional ending is added in kana. 活用のある語(通則2を適用する語を除く。)は,活用語尾を送る。 History When ...


8

Verbs and い-adjectives may be inflected with different okurigana For example, the verb 歩く may be inflected to form: polite: 歩きます negative: 歩かない polite negative: 歩きません past tense: 歩いた past polite: 歩きました negative past: 歩かなかった negative past polite: 歩きませんでした te form: 歩いて desiderative: 歩きたい volitional: 歩こう polite volitional (cohortative): 歩きましょう plain negative ...


8

If the average native reader cannot be expected to pick the correct reading based on context clues or set phrases, and the difference is important to the writer, the onus is on the writer to prevent this problem. Furigana is of course an option, but for something like 埋める, a good way is to just write the whole word in hiragana if you mean to convey the less ...


8

Yes, 男性向 is a valid abbreviation, and still pronounced だんせいむけ. Okurigana is often omitted, especially in longer compounds like 男性向同人. Similar examples: 受け付け = 受付け = 受付 = うけつけ ("reception") 申し込み = 申込み = 申込 = もうしこみ ("application") 打ち合わせ = 打合せ = うちあわせ ("meeting") Omission of okurigana is largely customary and happens in limited number of words. Please don't ...


7

Yes, they're both the same. It's just an alternate spelling, think color vs. colour. Not to my knowledge.


7

The verb is usually written 落とす. 落す is a much less common variant (which is not an official reading: 落: ラク、お-ちる、お-とす). The BCCWJ has 落とす 1657 results 落す  130 results One way to remember the okurigana is to note that the reading of the kanji should be short enough, i.e. the okurigana should be long enough, to accommodate all transitive/intransitive ...


7

I had the same question as you a long time ago, and at the time a translator friend gave me the following explanation. With these kinds of compounds (I always forget if they're compound verbs or something else, so forgive me that I'm lacking terminology), writing with okurigana or not is equally fine. The reason the okurigana can be omitted is that those ...


7

Your question assumes that people typically learn the kanji, for instance 歩, and then go on to try to figure out what extra meaning the okurigana impart on the kanji -- for instance, the addition of く creates a verb 歩く "to walk", and the addition of いた to 歩 creates the past tense verb "walked". This is not the typical approach. The typical approach is to ...


7

I agree that this is very difficult. One way I've found that usually works is to use context to determine the correct reading. Often one of the readings will have specific nuances that the others don't, so the context of the sentence can help you out. One example that I personally encounter all the time is 汚れる. It can be read as both よごれる and けがれる. They ...


7

Both are valid, but 答え is more normal to use. However, you cannot use 答る instead of 答える (verb). Therefore, ○ 答えを見る。 ○ 答を見る。 ○ その問いに答える。 × その問に答る。 References http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/hakusho/nc/k19730618001/k19730618001.html


5

Would it surprise you if I told you that you are likely to have been using Japanese words of the same structure as 「開け口」 for years already --- 「[着物]{きもの}」,「[焼]{や}き[鳥]{とり}」, 「[食]{た}べ[物]{もの}」, etc. The structure is "[連用形]{れんようけい} of a verb + Noun". It is as simple as that. 「[開]{あ}け[口]{ぐち}」= The 連用形 of the verb [開]{あ}ける, which is [開]{あ}け + The noun [口]{くち} ...


5

Despite your confusion, you're actually asking two distinct questions unrelated to each other. Why 結{けっ}婚{こん} rather than 結{け}っ婚{こん} Because none of affixes involved in this case. Okurigana isn't for marking sound changes. It only clarifies some kind of grammatical meaningful differences caused by conjugation or derivation, or by homographic kun'yomi words,...


5

結婚 is a Chinese loanword; 持つ is native Japanese. In chinese loanwords, sometimes final sounds like つ get contracted to っ〜, but because it's still 結{けつ}, the つ is still "part of" the reading. Often 2-kanji words are chinese in origin. In the case of 持って, the っ is a suffix to 持つ's root, 持. 持 on its own doesn't have a つ sound in it. Same goes for 読む -> 読んで. ...


5

Yes there are, but it is a grey area if you include rare, uncommon, creative or archaic readings. People can be creative especially when it comes to kun-readings. Even for a kanji usually used only in compounds you might find a stand-alone usage if you're looking hard enough. Some of these need okurigana, eg. 隷う【したがう】 or 悠か【はるか】, but some don't, eg. 英【はやぶさ】...


4

Considering this is an example sentence in a modern J-E dictionary, yes, I believe this is a typo. At least in standard Japanese, it should be written as 甘んじている. BCCWJ corpus returned only one result for 甘【あまん】じる ("屈辱に甘じているのだ" in a novel published in 2002), and there may be a few other instances where old writers used 甘【あまん】じる. But let's not care about that ...


4

I'm suspecting you're confusing two different things, morphological rules and orthographic rules. Okurigana do not have any semantic meaning per se. That would not be a logical way to think about it. They attach to the kanji, thereby creating a word which has a reading and a meaning.


4

「[一]{ひと}」 is the number while 「[一]{ひと}つ」 is the count. 「~つ」 is used as a "generic" counter for counts less than 10 when the actual counter is unknown. 一つの林檎をください 一果の林檎をください


4

For 静か and 暖かい, the か is a fossilised grammatical element (cf. 静まる and 暖まる, which don't have it). As for 大きい, it's written with き to differentiate it from 大い, which is a 形容動詞 (albeit with a similar meaning). 小さい's case is a little less clear, since while there is a word that's written 小い, it's a very informal word (ちっこい) typically written with kana. It may ...


4

This is the descriptive answer. Google hits A word of warning about google hits. They are not accurate. Google tries everything to reduce computation time and costs, and it will not give you an accurate full-text search of the entire (public) net. Try going to page 20 or 30, and Google informs you it cannot provide any more results. Furthermore, a search ...


4

Being a non-linguist, I have no idea if this term is used in linguistics, but our 文化庁{ぶんかちょう} (Agency for Cultural Affairs) calls it 「許容{きょよう}」 ("tolerance"). http://www.bunka.go.jp/kokugo_nihongo/sisaku/joho/joho/kakuki/10/tosin01/02.html To refer to the phenomenon, you could use a phrase like: 「誤読{ごどく}の可能性{かのうせい}が低{ひく}い(単{たん})語{ご}の送{おく}り仮名{がな}の省略{...


3

OK, there is an official rule, but I must say this is really really difficult and even most native Japanese do not follow the official rule. As a noun, it is「話」. As a verb, it is 「話す」and its 連用形 is「話し」. 「お話になる。」"(It) becomes a story." 「お話しになる。」"(Someone) speaks." The same thing happens between「光」and「光り」. 「港の光」"The light of the harbor." 「港の光り」"The harbor ...


3

When I was taught vocabulary, in some cases I was given words with okuriganas, in some cases without, and in exams, getting the okuriganas wrong would be blamed. Based on this education, my answer is: "Yes there is a difference: one of the two spellings is correct, and there is no rule telling you which one it is."


3

No, okurigana are not always dropped. It depends mostly on whether the okurigana make up part of the changeable bit on the end (the part that shifts in different conjugations), and whether that only changes vowels, or disappears entirely. For instance, in the verb 着{き}る "to wear", the る on the end in the plain form きる kiru just disappears when conjugating ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible