15

Yes, it's possible if the 連用形{れんようけい} of the first verb does not have okurigana. For example: 見{み}る → 見- → 見上{みあ}げる 着{き}る → 着- → 着始{きはじ}める 寝{ね}る → 寝- → 寝落{ねお}ちる And so on. Even in cases when the compound verb does have middle okurigana, it may be omitted for brevity, e.g. especially in newspapers. With nouns created from such verbs even the ending ...


10

Both are different spellings of ありがとう, neither is more formal, although all three spellings may be differentiated by frequency (see below). ありがとう "thank you" may be derived from ありがたい through sound change; ありがたい is a compound of 有る and 難い. In forming compounds, the first verb conjugates to the ren'yōkei (= "masu-stem"). In compound verbs, like 有り得る or ...


9

The verb is usually written 落とす and one of the official readings for 落: 落 ラク、お-ちる、お-とす One way to remember the okurigana is to note that the reading of the kanji should be short enough, i.e. the okurigana should be long enough, to accommodate all transitive/intransitive variants. Here, we also have おちる "to fall down", so that we have [落とす]{おとす} and [...


8

General As had been pointed out, as a general rule, that part of the word - in terms of kana syllables - that changes or inflects is written with okurigana. See also 「送り仮名の付け方『国語を書き表すための送り仮名の付け方のよりどころ」』・単独の語1・活用のある語・通則1」, which states as a general principle that the inflectional ending is added in kana. 活用のある語(通則2を適用する語を除く。)は,活用語尾を送る。 History When ...


8

If the average native reader cannot be expected to pick the correct reading based on context clues or set phrases, and the difference is important to the writer, the onus is on the writer to prevent this problem. Furigana is of course an option, but for something like 埋める, a good way is to just write the whole word in hiragana if you mean to convey the less ...


8

Yes, 男性向 is a valid abbreviation, and still pronounced だんせいむけ. Okurigana is often omitted, especially in longer compounds like 男性向同人. Similar examples: 受け付け = 受付け = 受付 = うけつけ ("reception") 申し込み = 申込み = 申込 = もうしこみ ("application") 打ち合わせ = 打合せ = うちあわせ ("meeting") Omission of okurigana is largely customary and happens in limited number of words. Please don't ...


7

Yes, they're both the same. It's just an alternate spelling, think color vs. colour. Not to my knowledge.


7

I agree that this is very difficult. One way I've found that usually works is to use context to determine the correct reading. Often one of the readings will have specific nuances that the others don't, so the context of the sentence can help you out. One example that I personally encounter all the time is 汚れる. It can be read as both よごれる and けがれる. They ...


7

Both are valid, but 答え is more normal to use. However, you cannot use 答る instead of 答える (verb). Therefore, ○ 答えを見る。 ○ 答を見る。 ○ その問いに答える。 × その問に答る。 References http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/hakusho/nc/k19730618001/k19730618001.html


5

This is a very interesting question. There are certain "classes" of words where I don't think native speakers would have this problem at all. I doubt anyone would read 父 as just 「と」, or 大 as just 「お」, unless it was being used cleverly in a number. However, I think when using okurigana for verbs one is more likely to be confused/unsure. Sometimes ...


5

Yes there are, but it is a grey area if you include rare, uncommon, creative or archaic readings. People can be creative especially when it comes to kun-readings. Even for a kanji usually used only in compounds you might find a stand-alone usage if you're looking hard enough. Some of these need okurigana, eg. 隷う【したがう】 or 悠か【はるか】, but some don't, eg. 英【はやぶさ】...


5

Despite your confusion, you're actually asking two distinct questions unrelated to each other. Why 結{けっ}婚{こん} rather than 結{け}っ婚{こん} Because none of affixes involved in this case. Okurigana isn't for marking sound changes. It only clarifies some kind of grammatical meaningful differences caused by conjugation or derivation, or by homographic kun'yomi words,...


5

結婚 is a Chinese loanword; 持つ is native Japanese. In chinese loanwords, sometimes final sounds like つ get contracted to っ〜, but because it's still 結{けつ}, the つ is still "part of" the reading. Often 2-kanji words are chinese in origin. In the case of 持って, the っ is a suffix to 持つ's root, 持. 持 on its own doesn't have a つ sound in it. Same goes for 読む -> 読んで. ...


4

Considering this is an example sentence in a modern J-E dictionary, yes, I believe this is a typo. At least in standard Japanese, it should be written as 甘んじている. BCCWJ corpus returned only one result for 甘【あまん】じる ("屈辱に甘じているのだ" in a novel published in 2002), and there may be a few other instances where old writers used 甘【あまん】じる. But let's not care about that ...


4

This is the descriptive answer. Google hits A word of warning about google hits. They are not accurate. Google tries everything to reduce computation time and costs, and it will not give you an accurate full-text search of the entire (public) net. Try going to page 20 or 30, and Google informs you it cannot provide any more results. Furthermore, a search ...


4

For 静か and 暖かい, the か is a fossilised grammatical element (cf. 静まる and 暖まる, which don't have it). As for 大きい, it's written with き to differentiate it from 大い, which is a 形容動詞 (albeit with a similar meaning). 小さい's case is a little less clear, since while there is a word that's written 小い, it's a very informal word (ちっこい) typically written with kana. It may ...


3

I have never seen something like 休み々ゝ. If okurigana is present, くの字点 (〱) is obviously more concise. At least in the old days, it was possible to use くの字点 to repeat kana-kanji combinations, like this: "1981 Cabinet notification, rule #6" is probably this, but this document is about okurigana, and says nothing explicitly about when to use or when not to use ...


3

Question: I assume that arawaru and arawaruru are simply more archaic ways of writing arawareru, presumably changing in the late 19th or early 20th century. But was/is there any significant difference/implication/contextual or formal reason for using arawaru (現る, 顕る, 表る, あらわる) or arawaruru (顕るゝ, あらわるる)? Your question touches on a common phenomenon in ...


3

OK, there is an official rule, but I must say this is really really difficult and even most native Japanese do not follow the official rule. As a noun, it is「話」. As a verb, it is 「話す」and its 連用形 is「話し」. 「お話になる。」"(It) becomes a story." 「お話しになる。」"(Someone) speaks." The same thing happens between「光」and「光り」. 「港の光」"The light of the harbor." 「港の光り」"The harbor ...


3

No, okurigana are not always dropped. It depends mostly on whether the okurigana make up part of the changeable bit on the end (the part that shifts in different conjugations), and whether that only changes vowels, or disappears entirely. For instance, in the verb 着{き}る "to wear", the る on the end in the plain form きる kiru just disappears when conjugating ...


2

This is read as むこう. 向こう is the "standard" spelling, but people (especially novelists like him) sometimes use nonstandard or customary spellings like this. You can see the list of such kanji here: 送り仮名の省略 送り仮名の最短化


2

Because 結 don't have reading of け but けつ and 持て would be ambiguous if it's もって or もて.


2

The short answer is: no, there's no "golden rule" which works all of the time to remember how many okurigana there are. There are some tendencies you might be able to pick up on, but they do not work all of the time. I think, therefore, it would best to try and learn each word as it comes, in its correct or most common form. I suppose the reason for this is ...


2

They are both correct. Japanese vocabulary has all sorts of different spellings of the same words, it's just that many of them are archaic or simply uncommon. According to Kanshudo, 入口 is the most common, and 入り口 is the second most common. You will come across words like these constantly, especially if you are interacting with a large variety of Japanese ...


2

The word 送る seen in okurigana (送り仮名) is the term to mean "put okurigana". For example you could say: 「問い合わせ」の「せ」だけ送る (you'll get 問合せ) 「申し込み」の「し」は送らない (you'll get 申込み) 「終わる」は「わる」と送る (you'll get 終わる instead of 終る)


2

Q1: This is just a variation of okurigana. Okurigana was not very standardized in the past, and people often used (and still occasionally use) 生れる【うまれる】, 明かるい【あかるい】, 聞える【きこえる】, 断わる【ことわる】, etc. 現われる is still あらわれる. What does "irregular" mean in a sense of a missing okurigana letter? (上【あ】がる・上【あが】る, 明【あか】るい・明【あかる】い) Q2: あらわる and あらわるる are the same ...


1

The り is called okurigana It is used to ensure the reading. Naturally the Japanese people know that 入口 can only be read いりぐち。but in some other cases the reading can be ambiguous. therefore they add some time hiragana to help the reading. These are just 2 ways of writing but they are similar. (Here, you could read 入口 as にゅうこう without the り but that just ...


1

Do both these words mean "thank you"? Yes. (ありがとう,) 有難う and 有り難う are same. If both mean thank you why are they spelled differently? 有り難う is correct way of writing, and 有難う is also correct. According to MEXT: 許容 読み間違えるおそれのない場合は,活用語尾以外の部分について,送り仮名を省くことができる。 If there is no danger of misreading, excepting sentences' ending, you can leave out okurigana (...


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