42

In Katakana, we use ー for some long vowels indeed. But words with it, like ユーロ are spelt this way! However, in your case, there is no such word よーく、 ようく nor よおく. What this dash means is that the sound is lengthened. The word is just "よく". So, when the author wrote "よーくわかる" he meant "I reaaaaally understand". That's it!


11

I think the difference between the is really captured by their appearance alone. As you mentioned, ~ sometimes has a sort of wavy 'tremolo' type feel to it, or at least that's the image evoked by looking at it. I'm not sure how many times you would actually fluctuate the pitch like that in an actual reading, though. I usually associate it with a kind of ...


11

It would just be pronounced as if any of those two were removed No, that's not true. Japanese people will pronounce ルナラ, ルナーラ and ルナアーラ very differently. ルナラ is 3 morae long, ルナーラ is 4 morae long, and ルナアーラ is 5 morae long. ルナアーラ would be approximated as "lunar, ah, rah." Forget how it has been translated in other languages for now. This type of "double-...


10

Really, all I can say is 'it depends on the word'. Generally on'yomi (Chinese-derived) readings use おう, while kun'yomi (native Japanese) readings use おお, but there may be exceptions. A note: if う is a verb ending, おう will not be pronounced おお but as お and う separately, as in 追う and 思う. A lot of what I've said also applies to えい and ええ.


8

ソウル is the pronunciation given in the NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典, but both pronunciations are in use; some speakers pronounce it ソール instead. From The Sounds of Japanese (Vance 2008), pages 67-68: Katakana spellings of recent borrowings and foreign proper names with ウ (u) instead of ー (the length mark) do represent /ou/, but these are rare; Souru ソウル 'Seoul' in ...


6

What you've seen on Wikiversity is just a superficial explanation (or for beginners?). The spelling rule doesn't reside in hiragana and katakana, but in words often written in hiragana (native and Sino-Japanese vocabulary) and those in katakana (other loanwords and onomatopoeia). Mere rewriting hiragana ←→ katakana doesn't change the spelling. The former ...


6

As @Nothing at all notes, this depends on the word. On'yomi always use -OU for long O sound and kun'yomi almost always -OO.1 However, the real problem here is that you are being asked to reconstruct hiragana from Hepburn romanization. In general this is impossible, because Hepburn romanization conflates certain hiragana spellings. (There are romanization ...


6

Are there a multitude of instances where this elongation of syllables occurs forming new words? Yes, there are thousands of word pairs whose only difference is the length of a vowel. Is it difficult to differentiate in rushed conversations? Apparently yes for learners, but no for native Japanese speakers. As a native speaker of Japanese, I never thought ...


5

I can offer a little bit of insight on this. I teach English to young Japanese kids, and in a recent lesson, we were comparing the sounds of the names of different English letters and grouping them according to which names had similar sounds. For example, out of the letters A, N, Y, D, K, P, I, H, M, T, the task was to recognize that D, P, T all ended with "...


5

Yes, writing it as しいいいらない is okay, but is relatively uncommon. More common ways to write this are: しーらない! しーーーらない! し~らない! し~~~らない! しいぃぃらない! (with small ぃ) Needless to say, don't use these in business settings or in formal letters. See Also: ー vs small kana vs long kana for writing long vowels


5

Historically えい and おう were pronounced differently from ええ and おお, the first two as diphthongs and the second as long vowels. Sound changes resulted in a merger, but despite spelling reforms, the spellings remained separate.


5

Firstly, using the macron for indicating long vowels is only really used in (Revised) Hepburn romanization, so "correct" would mean "according to the rules of Hepburn romanization". Secondly, Hepburn only uses ō for long vowels and here there isn't one! One way that points to this fact is that the word in katakana isn't spelled オー, but オウ. Actually, ベオウルフ ...


5

I think that the long vowel marker is used for long vowels, like in バーモント, アーモンド, etc. As though usually used with カタカナ, sometimes it is used with ひらがな as well. For example in ひらがな mimeses like びゅーびゅー, where the うs in びゅうびゅう are evidently just "long vowel markers" in children's books, which write everything in ひらがな, and therefore カタカナ words (with the long ...


5

There are not strict correspondences of phoneme between the original English words and Katakana in Japanese. You can often see these examples as below. - joy -> ジョイ (not *ジョーイ) - toy -> トイ (not *トーイ) So it is no wonder you think boy is written as ボイ. However, ボイ appears much less than ボーイ. That is because ボーイ is recognized as just a Japanese word.


4

The vowel drop described in your textbook happens between consonants. However, even though the vowel is dropped, the rhythm of the word isn't changed. [[s.ki.de.s]] ↔ [[su.ki.de.su]] (the dot . denotes separation of syllables). You cannot do the same with the [[i]] in かわいいです [[ka.wa.i.i.de.s(u)]] or うれしいです. (I don't understand your comment about ...


4

I understand, In Japanese, the long dash (ー) means the sound is lengthened, just as Axioplase said. Like this: biiru ビール (beer) keeki ケーキ (cake) Sometimes, when writing in Romaji, (the English style of writing Japanese), the 'dash' is substituted with the letter and a small line over it. Like this: Kēki Bīru


4

They are all variations of the same word. The only difference here is the degree of emphasis and where the emphasis is. For example, "っ" in "すっ" just represents a bit of pause between "す" and "げ". "ぇ", "え", and "ー" all represent dragging of the "げ" sound, but "ー" is longer than "え", and "ぇ" is a very short addition. None is more correct than others, and the ...


3

Re: the name of this kind of transformation, in English, this might be called "monophthongization", or more generally as "vowel shift". It's not uncommon in human languages in general. It happened in ancient Japanese, producing the /e/ sound in modern 目{め} as a probable result of fusion of ancient /ma/ + nominalization particle /i/: /mai/ → /me/. It ...


3

I see it most often spelled out as ねー as in 使わねー etc. For me it has a rough, slightly negative, rude connotation (e.g. used by ruffians and ヤンキー, or the older generation that speak their opinions freely). It is also more prevalent in males than females. I've seen ねー、ねえ、ねぇ but not ねい. Can be used in the positive to show emphasis (also used by above) e.g. ...


3

There are two things you should try to pay attention to when trying to listen to or pronouncing a long O. Rhythm The language is modelled on morae (sing. mora) creating a rhythm. For example こんにちは is different from こにちわ and a "long O" is either 1,2,3,... morae long. (Also see Distinguishing between んな/な, んの/の, etc) Pitch Individual morae can have either a ...


3

「ボウル」("bowl") is still often written 「ボール」 as very few people (loanword pronunciation nazi types), actually pronounce the two differently. 「ボウル」 is pronounced 「ボール」 by the rest of the nation. (I never even knew that a sound like 「オウ」 existed in this world until I started learning English in junior high school. I am sure you have heard Japanese-speakers ...


3

Of course it depends what romanization system you use, but generally (e.g. Hepburn) one romanizes double /i/ as ii, e.g. しいたけ → shiitake. However, a vowel lengthened with the 長音 「ー」 (usually in loanwords) is romanized differently: Hepburn a macron over the vowel before it, e.g. シート → shīto (See Kenkyūsha's New Japanese-English Dictionary for modified ...


3

Yes, you are right. For 拾う and している, I think everybody pronounces them with ou and ei. For 姪, I would pronounce it mei, but I'm not convinced that some people wouldn't pronounce it mee. In the case of 姪御{めいご}, which is sonkeigo for 姪, I think even I would pronounce it meego. I don't know if there are strict rules about when to pronounce it either way, but ...


3

Yes, it happens word-internally in Japanese, but it's quite rare. As you probably know, Old Japanese had neither geminate consonants nor long vowels (as far as the best contemporary reconstructions can determine). Pretty much all the geminate consonants in today's Japanese can be traced to (i) more or less well-understood series of changes like the one that ...


3

First, it'll be very marginal, at least the long あ is impossible to appear in classic onyomi (漢音, 呉音, 唐宋音) series and "regular" native words. 母さん is like "mom" as opposed to "mother", and you can see these kind of words rarely get an established kanji. Below is the all results I get through prefix search on a J-J dictionary (italic is my own addition). 噫【...


2

The vowels aren't "dropped"; they simply become voiceless, which is explained (poorly) to English speakers as being "dropped" because the concept of voiceless vowels doesn't exist in English. In these two examples, the い is voiced in both cases. For かわいい, the voicing of わ means that the first い is voiced, and thus the adjacent final い must also be voiced. ...


2

Let's start by saying that not all words follow this rule. According to Japanese Wikipedia, a number of words are written in katakana but with doubled vowels, as if they were written in hiragana (in which they can be equally well written): 例:シイタケ、フウトウカズラ、セイウチ、ホウセンカ、オオバコ But these appear to be words that have kanjis, and fallen out of use. The "dash" is ...


2

This 'long hyphen' is the elongation mark. It makes the vowel before it long. In English what we call 'long vowels' are qualitatively different from 'short vowels', but in Japanese the sole difference between long and short vowels is their actual length. Long vowels are held for about twice as long as short. ('er' sounds tend to become アー in translation, by ...


2

Most of the time it is おう In rare cases, it is おお examples 遠く、通る おお also used for the kanji 大 or 多 , so 大きい、多い


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