11

It would just be pronounced as if any of those two were removed No, that's not true. Japanese people will pronounce ルナラ, ルナーラ and ルナアーラ very differently. ルナラ is 3 morae long, ルナーラ is 4 morae long, and ルナアーラ is 5 morae long. ルナアーラ would be approximated as "lunar, ah, rah." Forget how it has been translated in other languages for now. This type of "double-...


11

Really, all I can say is 'it depends on the word'. Generally on'yomi (Chinese-derived) readings use おう, while kun'yomi (native Japanese) readings use おお, but there may be exceptions. A note: if う is a verb ending, おう will not be pronounced おお but as お and う separately, as in 追う and 思う. A lot of what I've said also applies to えい and ええ.


9

I assume that you are asking whether native speakers can detect, as a child, whether a vowel is long (マーナ) or short (マナ). The answer is yes, infants can detect it by age 9.5 months according to the paper by Sato, Sogabe, Mazuka, "Discrimination of phonemic vowel length by Japanese infants" American Psychological Association, 2009


8

It's very surprising to me that this hasn't been answered somewhere on the site before, but after quite a bit of searching I can't find anything. This may just be so basic that it has slipped between the cracks. The ー in these words (and generally in katakana words) represents an extension of the vowel before it. According to Wikipedia, which is actually ...


8

Are there a multitude of instances where this elongation of syllables occurs forming new words? Yes, there are thousands of word pairs whose only difference is the length of a vowel. Is it difficult to differentiate in rushed conversations? Apparently yes for learners, but no for native Japanese speakers. As a native speaker of Japanese, I never thought ...


8

Responding to the extended discussion in the comments -- Terminology The second vowel is //o// in both 通【とお】り and 東【とう】. (東【とう】り is not a word, so I won't repeat that here.) When you're talking about vowels, you're talking about pronunciation. The second kana is either お or う, but in both 通【とお】り or 東【とう】, the vowel is //o//. Kana spellings This gets ...


7

As @Nothing at all notes, this depends on the word. On'yomi always use -OU for long O sound and kun'yomi almost always -OO.1 However, the real problem here is that you are being asked to reconstruct hiragana from Hepburn romanization. In general this is impossible, because Hepburn romanization conflates certain hiragana spellings. (There are romanization ...


6

Historically えい and おう were pronounced differently from ええ and おお, the first two as diphthongs and the second as long vowels. Sound changes resulted in a merger, but despite spelling reforms, the spellings remained separate.


5

There are not strict correspondences of phoneme between the original English words and Katakana in Japanese. You can often see these examples as below. - joy -> ジョイ (not *ジョーイ) - toy -> トイ (not *トーイ) So it is no wonder you think boy is written as ボイ. However, ボイ appears much less than ボーイ. That is because ボーイ is recognized as just a Japanese word.


5

What you've seen on Wikiversity is just a superficial explanation (or for beginners?). The spelling rule doesn't reside in hiragana and katakana, but in words often written in hiragana (native and Sino-Japanese vocabulary) and those in katakana (other loanwords and onomatopoeia). Mere rewriting hiragana ←→ katakana doesn't change the spelling. The former ...


5

They are all variations of the same word. The only difference here is the degree of emphasis and where the emphasis is. For example, "っ" in "すっ" just represents a bit of pause between "す" and "げ". "ぇ", "え", and "ー" all represent dragging of the "げ" sound, but "ー" is longer than "え", and "ぇ" is a very short addition. None is more correct than others, and the ...


5

Yes, writing it as しいいいらない is okay, but is relatively uncommon. More common ways to write this are: しーらない! しーーーらない! し~らない! し~~~らない! しいぃぃらない! (with small ぃ) Needless to say, don't use these in business settings or in formal letters. See Also: ー vs small kana vs long kana for writing long vowels


5

I can offer a little bit of insight on this. I teach English to young Japanese kids, and in a recent lesson, we were comparing the sounds of the names of different English letters and grouping them according to which names had similar sounds. For example, out of the letters A, N, Y, D, K, P, I, H, M, T, the task was to recognize that D, P, T all ended with "...


5

After some repeated listening I think I hear the difference you are pointing out, but it’s basically unnoticeable/unnotable to Japanese speakers, because both the ハドーケン (ō) and ハドウケン (ou) pronunciations are acceptable/interchangable. The former is the standard in regular speech because it’s easier to say, but the latter is just fine if you are trying to add ...


4

「ボウル」("bowl") is still often written 「ボール」 as very few people (loanword pronunciation nazi types), actually pronounce the two differently. 「ボウル」 is pronounced 「ボール」 by the rest of the nation. (I never even knew that a sound like 「オウ」 existed in this world until I started learning English in junior high school. I am sure you have heard Japanese-speakers ...


4

I understand, In Japanese, the long dash (ー) means the sound is lengthened, just as Axioplase said. Like this: biiru ビール (beer) keeki ケーキ (cake) Sometimes, when writing in Romaji, (the English style of writing Japanese), the 'dash' is substituted with the letter and a small line over it. Like this: Kēki Bīru


4

Firstly, using the macron for indicating long vowels is only really used in (Revised) Hepburn romanization, so "correct" would mean "according to the rules of Hepburn romanization". Secondly, Hepburn only uses ō for long vowels and here there isn't one! One way that points to this fact is that the word in katakana isn't spelled オー, but オウ. Actually, ベオウルフ ...


3

Most of the time it is おう In rare cases, it is おお examples 遠く、通る おお also used for the kanji 大 or 多 , so 大きい、多い


3

Re: the name of this kind of transformation, in English, this might be called "monophthongization", or more generally as "vowel shift". It's not uncommon in human languages in general. It happened in ancient Japanese, producing the /e/ sound in modern 目{め} as a probable result of fusion of ancient /ma/ + nominalization particle /i/: /mai/ → /me/. It ...


3

I see it most often spelled out as ねー as in 使わねー etc. For me it has a rough, slightly negative, rude connotation (e.g. used by ruffians and ヤンキー, or the older generation that speak their opinions freely). It is also more prevalent in males than females. I've seen ねー、ねえ、ねぇ but not ねい. Can be used in the positive to show emphasis (also used by above) e.g. ...


3

Yes, it happens word-internally in Japanese, but it's quite rare. As you probably know, Old Japanese had neither geminate consonants nor long vowels (as far as the best contemporary reconstructions can determine). Pretty much all the geminate consonants in today's Japanese can be traced to (i) more or less well-understood series of changes like the one that ...


3

First, it'll be very marginal, at least the long あ is impossible to appear in classic onyomi (漢音, 呉音, 唐宋音) series and "regular" native words. 母さん is like "mom" as opposed to "mother", and you can see these kind of words rarely get an established kanji. Below is the all results I get through prefix search on a J-J dictionary (italic is my own addition). 噫【...


3

The vowel drop described in your textbook happens between consonants. However, even though the vowel is dropped, the rhythm of the word isn't changed. [[s.ki.de.s]] ↔ [[su.ki.de.su]] (the dot . denotes separation of syllables). You cannot do the same with the [[i]] in かわいいです [[ka.wa.i.i.de.s(u)]] or うれしいです. (I don't understand your comment about ...


3

It depends on the romanization system which your writing or the words you encounter are based on. In nihon shiki and kunrei shiki, for example, the macron is not used and in its place a circumflex appears above the vowel letter. Among the major romanization systems of the Japanese language, you only see macrons used in Hepburn. The Wikipedia page on Hepburn ...


2

The vowels aren't "dropped"; they simply become voiceless, which is explained (poorly) to English speakers as being "dropped" because the concept of voiceless vowels doesn't exist in English. In these two examples, the い is voiced in both cases. For かわいい, the voicing of わ means that the first い is voiced, and thus the adjacent final い must also be voiced. ...


2

There are two things you should try to pay attention to when trying to listen to or pronouncing a long O. Rhythm The language is modelled on morae (sing. mora) creating a rhythm. For example こんにちは is different from こにちわ and a "long O" is either 1,2,3,... morae long. (Also see Distinguishing between んな/な, んの/の, etc) Pitch Individual morae can have either a ...


2

This 'long hyphen' is the elongation mark. It makes the vowel before it long. In English what we call 'long vowels' are qualitatively different from 'short vowels', but in Japanese the sole difference between long and short vowels is their actual length. Long vowels are held for about twice as long as short. ('er' sounds tend to become アー in translation, by ...


2

I wouldn't worry too much about it, the more you listen to Japanese the more it will naturally come to you. In any case, Long vowels are not something you'll be struggling with in the long run, eventually it will become natural, trying to force it often lead to awkward situation. Just let the sounds come out a tiny bit longer when pronouncing long vowels. ...


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