10

I think you have a couple choices. For "fluent": ペラペラ。 This is a slightly colloquial word (due to being an onomatopoeia sounding like quick speech), which can mean "fluent", both in the sense of (a) speaking uninterruptedly, and by extension, (b) being skilled in the language. This might be the most common word you hear when describing someone as "fluent" ...


9

As far as Japanese is concerned, loanwords (外来語) usually refer to words brought into Japan from countries other than China and written in katakana. But strictly speaking, it depends on how you define loanwords. Many on-yomi Sino-Japanese words had been around even before Japanese people learned how to write their own native words, so IMHO it doesn't make ...


9

I assume that you are asking whether native speakers can detect, as a child, whether a vowel is long (マーナ) or short (マナ). The answer is yes, infants can detect it by age 9.5 months according to the paper by Sato, Sogabe, Mazuka, "Discrimination of phonemic vowel length by Japanese infants" American Psychological Association, 2009


7

Due to the way kanji are typed (i.e. using an IME which presents you with candidates from a dictionary), and the fact that Japanese kana usage is by-and-large phonemic (i.e. you write it how you say it), there aren't really many mistakes that are entirely analogous to your/you're or there/their/they're, etc. Probably the closest thing is typing something ...


7

Please note that kana is not a true syllabic script anymore. The reason for this is due to /n/. For example, take the word /sinbun/ "newspaper". If you break it into its syllables, it is sin.bun. While accents are determined by syllables in some dialects, kana--as well as Japanese speakers--segment this as si.n.bu.n. The appropriate term for this mora. ...


7

In about 2000 years ago, people in Japan were still using clay vessels and had no characters at all, while China had developed a large civilization and their own writing system, kanji. In those days, Japanese and Chinese used completely different languages, with completely different vocabulary, syllables, and grammar. In around the 1st to 4th century, kanji ...


7

Some language families (such as Chinese and Athabaskan) have visible origins for their tones - you can't reconstruct tone back to the shared proto-language, but you can reconstruct other features that later turned into tone. Other language families (such as Bantu and Oto-Manguean) have no visible origins for their tones - you can reconstruct tone back to ...


6

The former method is 命数法【めいすうほう】, and the latter is 位【くらい】取【ど】り記数法【きすうほう】, although they're not known to most people. See this, this, or this book. Wikipedia says that, in English, 10000 is written as 10000 in 記数法 and as ten thousand in 命数法. I personally knew 位取り記数法, but I haven't recognized 命数法 as the opposing idea of 記数法. Either way, most people (...


6

To the best of my knowledge there are none. Infixes are really pretty rare crosslinguistically, so it's not that surprising. English's expletive ones are pretty unusual even by English's standards, and as far as I know they're not particularly productive (I can't think of too many words you're actually allowed to use them with).


6

もうすぐ and まもなく are both "soon". The latter is a formal expression mainly used in polite business settings. And まもなく refers to a very short time (usually a few minutes), but もうすぐ can be a few days, or even months later, depending on the context. もうすぐ春が来る。: OK まもなく春が来る。: weird そろそろ is an adverb which adds a nuance of "it's high time" or "it's about ...


5

You've got two distinct questions here, I'll answer them in turn. Japanese wasn't really 'influenced' by any other syllabic phonetic writing systems; instead, it turns out a syllabary is the most natural kind of phonetic writing system to create out of nothing (or out of a semantically-based system like Chinese). Of the various examples we have of people ...


5

English Since the question seems asking for Japanese translation, I know that pure translation is a violation of the rules of this site, but I dare to answer the question because I would like to tell the questioner what would be a natural Japanese language. Before answering the question, I'll explain the background of Japanese language and how Japanese ...


5

It's unfortunate that wikipedia uses 可読性, because the relevant terms here are 読みやすさ and リーダビリティ. In terms of how readability is actually measured in Japanese, as with English, it looks like there have been a variety of suggested solutions. This blog post references a paper titled Derivation of a Readability Formula of Japanese Texts, which was published ...


4

To my understanding as a native speaker, in all of the three examples, sentence (1) is written from the author's perspective, and sentence (2) is written from the perspective of a character in the story. The switching of the perspectives is in fact, in these examples, is signalled by the change of the tenses. The sentences in Example 24 could be written in ...


4

Use of the unmarked case is categorized into three. When particle は・が・を (and に when the verb is 行く or 来る) are simply omitted. When the unmarked case is the most natural (the least nuanced) choice. e.g. ビール飲みますか? いちご好きですか? When it's grammatically required. e.g. あっ、納豆が腐ってる! → あっ、この納豆くさってる!


4

Just given the archaeological record, any such Tamil claims seem unlikely in the extreme, unless the proponents of this view also intend to make the Tamil the ancestors of the modern Koreans. In terms of material culture, the Yayoi people that became the modern Japanese were pretty clearly from continental Asia, and they entered the Japanese archipelago ...


4

Not sure I should answer this, but it is related to Japanese after all, so I'll go ahead. So, by definition - no. 外食 is a lexeme that consists of more than one stem. That alone is enough to say that it cannot be a morpheme. To elaborate a bit more, both 外 and 食 are actually unbound morphemes (they appear not only as part of larger words), meaning that it's ...


4

いる is usually used with が for the same reason English "there is" is usually followed by "a(n)" rather than "the"; ~がいる and "there is a(n) ~" are both used to introduce something into the discourse. But "a(n)" can be used with tons of other verbs. Did your book really say you can distinguish the type of a verb by looking at if it can be used with が? I doubt ...


3

There are many usages, but 「にかかわらず」 and 「にもかかわらず」are different. (You can't replace them) When you want to insist you won't care about something: 何か(A) にかかわらず 何か(B) をする。 Without caring about something(A), do something(B). Without worrying about something(A), do something(B). It's similar to: 何か に拘らず 何か をする。 何か を気にせず 何か をする。 何か を問わず 何か をする。 何か を意識せず 何か をする。 ...


3

I am not aware of any such analysis that looks at the full breadth of Japanese character readings. Some background first. Background detail Kanji have been used very flexibly, both historically and currently, with examples such as the historical 木乃伊【みいら】, where the spelling comes from Chinese and the reading comes from Portuguese mirra or Dutch mirre ("...


3

These revisions sound -very- strange to my ears. I would never use ある with verbs in this way, even if the verb form in question is technically conjugated as an adjective, but even if you rewrite them with する, they sound odd. I think this comes down to the base form you're riffing off of. 食べもしない is a quite normal way of saying 'I won't even eat it' or 'I won'...


3

The only one I can think of, if it can be called an infix, is [兼]{けん} as in: [書斎兼応接間]{しょさいけんおうせつま} - a room used for both study and for receiving vistors or [総理大臣兼外務大臣]{そうりだいじんけんがいむだいじん} - (be both) Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs But as it has been pointed out, prefixes and suffixes are much more common in Japanese. One might ask ...


3

A few evidences may show people are inclined to use godan verbs more often. ら抜き言葉 refers to making a "wrong" potential form from ichidan verbs as if they were godan verbs. What's is the difference between these two forms? 食べられる (taberareru) vs 食べれる (tabereru)? The phenomenon of ら抜き (ra-nuki) in Japanese Recent verbs coined from loanwords or ...


3

This does not answer your question of how 格 came to be used, but only (roughly) when and by whom. In short, the term comes from translations of Dutch grammar in late 18th centruy. From this article 日本人が格変化と出会ったのは実はドイツ語が 初めてではない。鎖国時代も貿易を続けたオラン ダの言語オランダ語も文語では格変化を形式的で はあるが維持していた。よって江戸時代の蘭学者 たちも格変化の情報を知っていた筈である。彼ら の文法用語はどうなっているかといえば,蘭語学 で最も功績のある中野柳圃『三種諸格』(1781 ...


2

Not sure if it's quite the same thing linguistically, but you sometimes see なんか used with negative forms of adjectives or in て form + negative. 欲しくない → 欲しくなんかない 待ってないんだから → 待ってなんかないんだから!


2

What about っ (the "little tsu") and ん? For example: やはり → やっぱり・やっぱし よほど → よっぽど あまり → あんまり・あんまし みな → みんな These seem, to me at least, to be similar to English colloquialisms (e.g., hizouse, saxomaphone).


2

Chinese is a lot neater with regard to its characters; one character equals one word (now morpheme) equals one syllable. In theory at least. 葡萄 being a two syllable morpheme, Chinese would rather adhere to a policy of one character per syllable than one per morpheme if it has to choose. In ancient Chinese there were prefixes and suffixes as well, but they ...


2

I put that citation into the Wikipedia link. It came from a grammar book in Japanese published by Hitsuji Shobou. It lists Japanese cases, giving the particle that marks the case (or showing a zero crossed through for the nominative case), gives some Japanese names for the cases, and gives the English name for the cases. I think some confusion regarding the ...


2

This structure is correct it is just very casual Japanese sorry if my explanation is too simple I don't have a very large English vocabulary but here is an example from a song lyric. 許せなくもあり そうされたくもあり here is the link to the official lyrics http://j-lyric.net/artist/a000680/l00ab4a.html


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