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16

I have long enjoyed Shogakukan's Kokugo Dai Jiten (KDJ) for its etymologies -- it's one of the few monolingual Japanese dictionaries to include etymologies for its terms. This post relies on their entry for 松明, available here at Kotobank. Derivation of the term たいまつ The たいまつ reading is first cited to the 宇津保【うつぼ】物語【ものがたり】, dated to around 999. Unfortunately,...


15

It is a prank that is an imitation of キン肉マン. キン肉マン was a popular manga in the 80's. The main character of the manga is キン肉マン, who has a kanji "肉" on his forehead.


12

Yes, the kana に is derived from the Chinese character ([漢字]{かんじ}, kanji) 仁. See also the English Wiktionary page and the Japanese Wikipedia page, among other references. All kana derived from kanji. In fact, the word kana originally meant something like "provisional / borrowed + name / label" (from older kari na or 仮り名), in reference to the way ...


9

The common readings of 禍 are まが (as in 禍々しい) and カ. コロナ禍 is read ころなか, where this 禍 is a kind of suffix which cannot be replaced by 災い. According to dictionaries, わざわい can be written both as 災い and 禍, but the latter is a little-known reading used almost exclusively in aesthetic writing (usually with furigana). Some novelists like to use rare kanji just to ...


9

Based on the hint from @wip, I started to research and found a wonderful discussion. They have shared so many reliable sources but everything is Japanese and it's very very long so I'll pick up points relating to this question. About kanji variation. First of all, there were hundreds of variations of kanji of coffee (as a form of ateji) at least in Japan. ...


9

If you look 迷子 up in a monolingual dictionary, such as 大辞林 or 大辞泉 for example, it should include a note like まよいごの音変化 (sound change from mayoigo). So yes, it was originally まよいご and changed over time.


9

The cause is most likely that your font setting (of a program or OS) have gone wrong. As far as I can see the said character in the input box looks rendered with a Chinese font. The glyph you see and the intended Japanese one share the same meaning and the same code point in Unicode (Han unification). Thus computers cannot tell which is which binary-wise, ...


8

This is indeed a rare kanji, but it is on the Kanji Kentei list, Level 1. It is listed in the standard dictionaries, but there don't seem to be any compounds containing this character which are in regular use. It may occur in proper nouns like place names or people names. There is some info on it here. But this is not a character which you are likely to ...


7

It's 御 (generic honorable prefix) written in cursive style. See picture here: http://www.fan.hi-ho.ne.jp/chikusui/newpage18.htm


7

According to Japanese 戸籍法 (Family Register Act): 第五十条 子の名には、常用平易な文字を用いなければならない。 Article 50 (1) For the given name of a child, characters that are simple and in common use shall be used. 2 常用平易な文字の範囲は、法務省令でこれを定める。 (2) The scope of characters that are simple and in common use shall be defined by Ordinance of the Ministry of Justice. This is the legal basis ...


7

According to スーパー大辞林, the 呆気 in あっけない is just 当て字 (kanji used purely for the pronunciation, rather than the meaning), so it contributes nothing to the definition. Here is the entry for 呆気ない: あっけ-な・い [4] 【呆気ない】 (形)[文]ク あつけな・し 〔物足りないの意の「飽く気(ケ)なし」の転。「呆気」は当て字〕 予期や期待に反して簡単・貧弱で物足りない。「―・い幕切れ」「―・く敗れる」 I've bolded the part of the entry which described the word's ...


6

The kanji has changed its sound long before importation into Japanese. 「[斜]{しゃ}」 (Zhengzhang OC: /*lja/, to scoop/ladle) is comprised of semantic 「斗」 (picture of a ladle > unit of measure for liquids) and phonetic 「[余]{よ}」 (/*la/). You can take the modern meaning, slanted, to be a phonetic loan. *The unit of measure for liquids might also be seen with the ...


6

This is a relic of the Chinese writing system, which some time in the past used the character 「足」 to mean sufficient, enough. From 《上{{kr:海}}博物館藏戰國楚竹書・䊷衣》簡11 (Shanghai Museum Chu Bamboo Slips, section Black Robes, Slip #11: 子曰大臣𡳿(之)㔻(不)⿱目辛(親)𠃟(也)則𢘑(忠)敬㔻(不)𠯁(足)而⿱富貝(富)⿱貞貝(貴)𢎟(已)⿺辶化(過) The Master said: If the ministers are not close to their monarch, then ...


6

There is no requirement to write words in kanji. A sentence written entirely in hiragana would still be valid (if somewhat hideous to read). Your PDF is clearly beginner level learning material. I would guess that the writers of the material decided that the kanji for 測る was too advanced to learn at that level. According to this site this kanji isn't learnt ...


6

There’s no really “correct” or “incorrect” when it comes to ateji like 明日{あした} or 大人{おとな}, you just have to pick something or least bad. With jukujikun (kanji picked purely for meaning and not readings) it’s even worse since you may have not enough kana for the kanji. Some examples from Wikipedia: kera (啄木鳥, woodpecker), gumi (胡頽子, silver berry/oleaster), ...


6

The particles を, が are omitted. The sentences are using "headline grammar". See: what is the name of the abbreviated writing style used in newspapers? 緊急事態宣言出すのを前に諮問委員会始まる 専門家に意見聴く to rewrite it in normal grammar: 緊急事態宣言を出すのを前に諮問委員会が始まった。専門家に意見を聴いた。 literally: "Prior to releasing the declaration of the state of emergency, the advisory ...


6

Surprisingly, it seems there’s some credit to the story. According to the Goo辞典, the old version of 恋 is 戀 and that one does have the variant you are showing. Here it is in the Ministry of Justice family register character database: You can see that the “proper” character (正字) is 戀


6

未 has an on'yomi み. So 海未 as a whole intended to be read うみ even though 海 already reads うみ. To be more academically, this kind of "overspelling" is widely seen in ideography-based writing systems (such as Egyptian and Mayan hieroglyphs). Modern Japanese has kana that dispenses with such orthography, but it often appears as fancy spelling in names. ...


6

According to the official 常用漢字表, the difference between components 飠 and 𩙿 is that of handwriting and printing standard. It is reiterated in the document that such two shapes are equivalent, along with the list of many other ignorable stroke-level and component-level variants. The printing standard glyphs in Japanese are basically following the style of ...


6

EDIT: With some more research, I found the reason. As I expected, it's due to historical unification of JIS X kanji with Unicode codepoints. Here's a GitHub thread about the issue, including precisely the two characters you asked about. The tl;dr is that the Japanese codepoints corresponding to those characters, which were unified with the Simplified Chinese ...


5

It's the word 魔女 with a simplified version of 魔 which uses マ to represent the phonetics of it. You can read more about this kind of thing on the Wikipedia article about ryakuji.


5

This is a very interesting question. There are certain "classes" of words where I don't think native speakers would have this problem at all. I doubt anyone would read 父 as just 「と」, or 大 as just 「お」, unless it was being used cleverly in a number. However, I think when using okurigana for verbs one is more likely to be confused/unsure. Sometimes ...


5

It looks pretty clearly like it's 森口(もりぐち).


5

校 does not mean "exam" in the sense of students' written test, but it means "examination" or "investigation" in the following compounds: 校正 proofreading 校了 proofreading completed 校閲 copyedit / reviewing / proofreading ☆校合 collation (comparison of different versions of the same classical work) 校本 a survey book on different ...


5

First of all, 中村 is never used outside proper names (surnames or place names) today. Etymologically it isn't "villager" either. If somebody says 中村 literally means "(who lives) inside village", it violates the Japanese grammar. Here, the English word inside is a preposition, which Japanese does not have any. It should be instead like 村中【...


5

Despite the difference in form, it's 溢【あふ】れる. See entries at Wiktionary, WWWJIDIC, Weblio, Kotobank. And specific for just the glyph, see also Unihan, Chise, and Glyph Wiki. These last three show the variants better.


5

I can only make out the first three characters, read from top to bottom, then right to left: 渡満紀... The last character appears to have 亻 as one component, but I can't quite make it out. The first word 渡満 is read as [と]{to}[ま]{ma}[ん]{n}, and it means "crossing over (i.e. emigrating) to Manchuria", in reference to the Japanese colony established in ...


5

This is called ateji, using kanji to represent sounds where the meanings of the kanji are irrelevant. 襟{エリ}挫{ザ}邉{ベ}洲{ス}


5

Some 表外漢字 like 狼 and 嘘 are perfectly safe in ordinary writing. Some are simply too difficult. It largely depends on the character. Personally I can read 鰐 but not 鰰/鱸. See also Why are the names of plants and animals often written in katakana? 旧字体 was the standard way of writing in the past, so it's natural if the text is related to periods before WWII. It ...


5

You can actually write it in both ways, and they will mean slightly different things. 過ち will imply error in moral judgement. 誤ち will imply accidental mistakes. So it's better to write 過去の過ちを責めてはいけない rather than 過去の誤ちを責めてはいけない because in this case, you are not talking about accidental mistakes. Similary, it's better to write 計算を誤った than 計算を過った.


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