11

Good answer from @jogloran - here's an idea of the glyph evolution in case you're not convinced: 商甲乙112合集22148春秋金曾白𩃲簠集成4631秦簡秦律十八種睡虎地秦簡今楷  「印」 is comprised of a hand 「爪・爫」 pressing down on a kneeling person 「卩」. Compare 「妥」. A somewhat lengthy note about this idea of radicals... Kanji are made of radicals, right? No, they're not. Sometimes this might ...


10

In short, the difference between 鍵 and 鑰 is that you can safely forget the second one unless you prepare for the top level of kanji recognition test. 鍵 (on-reading: ケン) is the normal way to spell かぎ in kanji (and the only one to spell ケン "key" in compounds, such as [鍵盤]{けんばん} "keyboard"). It is a part of Jōyō list, and even the guidelines for Japanese ...


9

You're right that it's not a radical. For instance, the radical of 印 for dictionary purposes is actually 卩. The "E" looking thing is actually a rotated version of the component 爪 found at the top of 妥, which represents a grasping hand. This can be seen from the earliest forms. The second character below is an ancestral form of 印 that shows a hand pressing ...


7

1. Why is the verb 狭{せば}む so rare/weird? As user naruto said in the comments, the reason you don't see 狭{せば}む much in modern Japanese (and that your input method can't handle it) is that this is a Classical Japanese (bungo 文語) verb, of the shimo-nidan conjugation; it inflects as 狭め(ぬ), 狭め(て), 狭む(ぞ), 狭むる(人), 狭むれ(ど), 狭めよ(!). (If you want to learn more, you ...


7

It is not a good idea to learn Japanese Kanji reading Chinese newspapers. Of course, a majority of Chinese characters used both in China and Japan have same or similar meanings, however, the grammar and syntax of Chinese are completely different from those of Japanese and I don't see any benefit coming out of reading Chinese newspapers unless you want to get ...


7

No. It's a Jinmeiyou kanji (which means it's used in names but isn't a Joyo kanji).


7

According to Japanese 戸籍法 (Family Register Act): 第五十条 子の名には、常用平易な文字を用いなければならない。 Article 50 (1) For the given name of a child, characters that are simple and in common use shall be used. 2 常用平易な文字の範囲は、法務省令でこれを定める。 (2) The scope of characters that are simple and in common use shall be defined by Ordinance of the Ministry of Justice. This is the legal basis ...


6

Some 表外漢字 like 狼 and 嘘 are perfectly safe in ordinary writing. Some are simply too difficult. It largely depends on the character. Personally I can read 鰐 but not 鰰/鱸. See also Why are the names of plants and animals often written in katakana? 旧字体 was the standard way of writing in the past, so it's natural if the text is related to periods before WWII. It ...


6

有る is for possession; 在る is for existence. Though there can be some overlap. And 或る (even though you didn't ask) is actually an adjective for "a particular/certain", like in ある日に.... So in this case, I'm mostly certain it would be 有る since you "have" homework. Here are some words that might help remember the difference: 有 所有 → one's possessions; ...


6

Yes, 沢 is the modern replacement (aka 新字体【しんじたい】) form of 澤. The Ministry of Education (文部科学省【もんぶかがくしょう】) is the body that officially determines which characters are and aren't official. 澤 is still used in names, as all 旧字体【きゅうじたい】 (pre-reform) forms of current official characters (常用漢字【じょうようかんじ】) are valid for use in names (人名用漢字【じんめいようかんじ】). This site has ...


6

The basic CJK Unified Ideographs (U+4E00 – U+9FFF) contain all of the characters defined in JIS X 0208 (aka 第1水準/第2水準), which contains almost all of the kanji in the current joyo-kanji list. As you know, this block looks like this, and it includes common and uncommon kanji from both Japanese and Chinese jumbled together. There is no simple way to ...


5

りんご can be written in kanji as 林檎. However, the second kanji is not a jōyō kanji, so the whole word is often written in kana. The same happens with hundreds of other everyday items みかん 蜜柑 しょうゆ 醤油 みそ 味噌 ろうそく 蝋燭 にんじん 人参 タンス 箪笥 ネジ 螺子 ...


5

Just a little bit of background on this: As you mentioned, it is generally written as ある these days. In the past, there was a clearer differentiation based on grammatical properties, i.e. that 有る was used in a transitive sense like Xを所有する ('to possess X'), whereas 在る was used in an intransitive sense like Xが存在する ('X exists'). However, that distinction seems ...


4

鍵{かぎ} seems to have explained in the other answer. 鑰{やく} is difficult to read. I have never seen this one as a standalone character. So, I searched to a little bit. I found a book called 秘蔵{ひぞう}宝鑰{ほうやく} written by 空海{くうかい}, a Buddhist monk, 1200 years ago. So, a person who follows his Buddhism teaching/school may be familiar with the word. 宝鑰 seems to ...


4

Can the same compound have different readings when having the same meaning? Yes! There are two ways of reading Kanji. One is "訓読み" the Japanese reading of a Chinese character(Kanji) and the other is "音読み" the Chinese reading of a Chinese character(Kanji). Japanese feel "訓読み" as soft expressions and "音読み" as a little ...


3

It does have the two meanings you mentioned: a unit of distance 里{り} (which is more or less 4km), and the meaning village 里{さと}. Note that 里{り} is a counter. 一里{いちり}・二里{にり}・三里{さんり}… (be precise because 一里 is not read as ひとり). However, the unit of distance is obsolete, and the meaning for village is not used anymore productively. You will still find it in ...


3

The difference is that 鍵 is the commonly used character in Japanese, being included in the 'Common Use' kanji list (常用漢字), while 鑰 is a rare variant which is almost obsolete in Modern Japanese. So for the practical purposes of learning Japanese, you should learn 鍵 as the kanji which represents 'key/lock'.


3

The official answer is: the 旧字体 kanji are those that were officially matched to the corresponding simplified forms. The official List of Jōyō Kanji by Japanese Agency for Cultural Affairs has them in parentheses after the main entries. The official List of Jinmeiyō Kanji by Japanese Ministry of Justice contains two kinds of 旧字体: in the list itself (these ...


3

In kanji りんご is 林檎, but as you may know 檎 is not a general-use kanji (常用漢字) thus it is not taught in school and is not supposed to appear in official writings. That is the reason why you will never see 林檎 in kanji outside of dictionaries or books that does not bother with 常用漢字.


2

I think you shouldn't learn Japanese Kanji by Chinese texts. There are some difference between Japanese kanji and Chinese kanji. For example, Japanese kanji has Kun-readings as you say, and some kanji have different meaning but same character, and there are Chinese kanji which isn't Japanese kanji.


2

The matter is in the permitted kanji. The kanji 稀, 'rare,' is the proper choice for the word (cf. Chinese xīliúsuān 稀硫酸 same). It, however, is not included in the Jōyō list (though it is permitted for names), so, say, chemistry school textbooks cannot use it to teach. The need to write words with rare kanji frequently leads to the phenomenon called kakikae, ...


2

As far as I know there is no official name for the characters outside the prescribed kyouiku kanji list but inside the jouyou kanji list. In addition, there are only guidelines for teaching the rest of the characters, rather than strict amounts per year. These guidelines are called 中学校学習指導要領 (Junior High School educational curriculum guidelines), as ...


2

First of all, what is "common" or not "common" has a clear definition in terms of readings; by extension, words could be defined to be "uncommon" if they are written with characters whose readings are not "common". The "common" readings are those defined in the list of 常用漢字 jōyō kanji. Most of them are (on ...


2

Modern noun [恋]{こい} ("love", generally referring more specifically to romantic or carnal love) is derived as the [連用形]{れんようけい} (also known as the "continuative form" or "stem form") of verb [恋う]{こう}. The historical kana spelling for the verb ([歴史的仮名遣い]{れきしてきかなづかい}, see also the Wikipedia articles in Japanese and English) was [恋ふ]...


2

These kanji are definitely taught. One way or another. I did not go through the education system in Japan so I cannot directly speak to what happens in the classroom. But I have several textbooks and references used in elementary school and high school. All these resources present these kanji and the textbooks (like books on culture and geography, for ...


2

The term 表外漢字 has somewhat different usage in technical sense and everyday parlage. Strictly speaking, there are 1'022 official 表外漢字. They are those designated by the National Language Council of Japan (国語審議会) in year 2000, delineated in this table: 1 (see also 2; source: 3). As it is easy to observe, some of these are even 常用, to say nothing of 人名用. But ...


2

Essentially answered in the comment, but hopefully the following clarifies your question. First of all, 常用漢字 is not about simplifying characters and almost never did, except 燈 → 灯. https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%B8%B8%E7%94%A8%E6%BC%A2%E5%AD%97#1981%E5%B9%B4%E3%81%AE%E5%88%B6%E5%AE%9A%E6%99%82%EF%BC%88%E5%BD%93%E7%94%A8%E6%BC%A2%E5%AD%97%E3%81%A8%E3%81%AE%...


1

Drawing a line between concepts that are directly opposite to each other might be helpful. In your single table, different classifications and concepts are mixed up, it might have more sense to have separated tables for each concern, where each table deals with one of such pair of opposite concepts. This would yield the following tables: Shinjitai / ...


1

By my understanding this means that the Kanji is permitted to be used for names, but is not considered commonly used for normal words. This isn't really true. There are common words which use kanji which aren't Jouyo or even Jinmeiyou. I don't think it should be unexpected when looking up words, just less common.


1

The number of Joyo kanji with only one Joyo ON-YOMI is 1789 characters. On this useful kanji database website, you can query Joyo kanji for various criteria. In the 'Select Kanji from Database' section (here), I performed a query where # of On = 1, together with what the ON-YOMI is and what the translation is. The results of that query can be seen here: ...


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