12

How did the two forms come about? The original imperative did not end in -yo or -ro. In Old Japanese, it took the following form: upper monograde: -i1, upper bigrade: -i2. To this, an emotive -yo may be added, but it was optional. During the transition to EMJ, the 上代特殊仮名遣い distinction 1/2 was lost. This resulted in confusion between the irrealis and ...


11

止まれ is the imperative form, so it's basically equivalent to "Stop!". I'm not sure where you get "rough intransitive" from. 止まる is intransitive already and 止める transitive. Although the imperative is usually considered too blunt for speech, the 止まれ road sign is usually the best example for a standard use of the imperative. The imperative for 五段 verbs (e.g. ...


10

No, 見る and 諦めた方 are grammatically subjects, not adverbs in those sentences. Words marked with が should be nouns, of course. As you know, noun + がいい (lit. "~ is good", with exhaustive-listing ga) is usually used when you choose one thing from a few possible options. 「ラーメンとカレー、どっちがいい?」「ラーメンがいい。」 If you want to use this with two or more possible actions (...


9

I think in that context, that わかるな? uses sense 3 of this entry at Daijirin to "seek agreement or a response". It might be similar to わかるよね? ("you understand, right?") I think すわんな would be a more colloquial form of 座りな/座りなさい "sit down". I think な here is a shortened form of なさい to make a command as in this entry. Note this is different from the ...


9

「おまえ、そんな体験したこともねぇのにわかったようなこと言うなっ」 How can I know? When it's spoken, you could easily tell the difference by the pitch accent: わかったようなこと[言うな]{LHL} ← negative imperative わかったようなこと[言うな]{LHH} ← mild emphasis, emotion But in writing it could be ambiguous. So I'd write it as 「言うなっ!」or 「言うなよ」 etc. to clearly show that it's negative imperative. To clearly ...


8

As Earthling says 止まれ is the imperative form, so it's basically equivalent to "Stop!" In this context the imperative is not "rude", it is quite simply an order.  This also explains why the て-form is not required. 止める is transitive. You would use it to say stop the car, but as in English, it is normal to refer to the person, just as you might say to a taxi ...


8

I think you could say something like this:   出かけないでおこう     (plain)   出かけないでおきましょう  (polite) Since your example includes 出かけません, I assume you want the polite version.


8

Yes, ~するでない is an old-fashioned and pompous way of saying "Don't do ~!". In modern Japanese, this is a kind of 役割語 (stereotyped role words) which is typically used by noble and/or old people in manga and samurai dramas. This seems to have been used a lot more 100 years ago or so, because I can find many similar expressions (eg. 泣くでない, 穢すでない, 淋しがるでない) in ...


8

It's basically the same as (imperative +) よ, i.e. request when the listener doesn't seem to share the same recognition as the speaker when you doubt that the opponent does it. In falling tone*1, it stands for complaint as well as よ, and extra ね softens it, sort of. (*1 Edit: I wrote "falling tone" because of similarity to falling よ, but I should have ...


7

It's not a word on its own, but a combination of 来い (imperative "come") and や (see #3 in this dictionary entry). As l'électeur pointed out in the comments, it can be understood as a "tough guy's imperative."


7

I believe it would be more correct to say 飲みにでも[行かない]{LLLH}?. にでも sounds more natural/correct to me than でもに for reasons I can't explain. Since the whole clause is new information to your friend, you need the "suggestiveness" of the いかない・いきませんか instead of the more "decisive" 行こう. よかったら sounds a little too stiff for a close friend. I'd go with something ...


7

The suffix なさい does not function like the verb なさる ("to do"). Syntactically: the suffix なさい attaches to the 連用形 of verbs the verb なさる behaves essentially exactly like する: it is either is on its own, or attaches to the root of any suru-verb. Semantically: the suffix なさい makes the verb into an imperative and provides no honorification (it almost provides ...


7

You could also say it in the sense of "let's give up on going out". 天気が悪いので、出かけるのをやめよう(かな)。


7

The general rule is to write words with auxiliary function in kana, so it's usually written 働かなくてはいけない Searching the Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese (BCCWJ, 少納言, http://www.kotonoha.gr.jp/shonagon), なくてはいけない has 902 results from books, newspapers, blogs, etc., whereas なくては行けない has only 4 results from internet sources (3 from Yahoo! ブログ, ...


7

Yes, 終止形 can be used as a command like in this manga. Translation: "Then stand up right away!" It sounds like parents or school teachers ordering their kids to do something right away. It's weaker/friendlier than 「立て」 but stronger than 「立って下さい」. I believe such use of 終止形 is not usually heard in military organizations, so the right person sounds rather ...


6

For one, you are confusing transitive (起こす) and intransitive (起きる) verbs. Your "immediate thought" would be Please wake up at 6am tomorrow. 明日、6時に 起きて ください。 Secondly, you should keep in mind that the direct object (here, of the transitive verb 起こす) may be omitted, whence 明日、6時に起こしてください。 Please wake [someone] up at 6am tomorrow. where [someone] = ...


6

Let's talk about the imperative in Japanese: an imperative is a way to give orders and/or commands. However, the form of these utterances decides whether they are humble requests to barked orders. You can find a quite complete reference here In general you can use a number of forms: ます-stem+なさい: this is a polite yet firm request. It is often used to ...


6

This is the [命令形]{めい・れい・けい} - imperative form. It translates more like O dream boat, go/move on to the shore of tomorrow Which is almost what you have. The difference is that the singer is addressing the boat (夢の船よ), not saying "go on" the boat.


6

Seems to be the imperative-form verb 楽{たの}しめ together with the particle よ. 楽しめ 楽{たの}しむ is the original verb, which means "to enjoy oneself". 楽{たの}しめ, the imperative form, is formed by changing む to め. Imperative-form verbs are blunt, and are used in emergencies, in commands, to be rude, etc. Thus 楽{たの}しめ roughly means "Enjoy yourself!" (...


6

せよ is the imperative form of the verb す, which is an archaic verb meaning する in modern Japanese. This archaic imperative is still found in modern Japanese, typically in examinations at high school and university. It generally looks highly stiff, blunt and authoritative. In this case, however, this せよ is used more or less jokingly, to make this message look ...


5

It's a simple imperative plus quoting particle. A basic "he told me to pay for the cleaning," or "tell me to go" or "told me to eat," essentially the same thing as what you offered as translations. It's a form of direct quotation and this doesn't really constitute a special case.


5

~くれ The word, くれ, is a special word. The original form of this is くれる (呉れる) and the imperative form is くれろ, while it's a deprecated expression. According to Daijirin: 〔命令形は「くれ」が普通〕 その動作者{どうさしゃ}が話{はな}し手{て}または話題{わだい}の人物{じんぶつ}のために何{なん}らかの動作{どうさ}をすることを表{あらわ}す (Translation: [くれ is general in imperative form] This means that the hearer do ...


5

I think the な is the negative imperative meaning don't do. So, the speaker is telling 鈴木 to not ask his son. The second sentence shows the speaker's reasoning with the explanatory のだ: because there's a girl 鈴木's son is interested in on that hill. Here's another answer regarding this: When is "na" used at the end of a sentence?


5

うるさくしないでください is the only correct choice. うるさくないでください is just plain ungrammatical because it lacks a verb. ~ないでください ("Please don't ~") of course needs a verb before it, and in this case, the verb is する (in its nai-form, し(ない)). うるさく is the adverbial form (aka "ku-form") of the i-adjective うるさい. うるさく is adverbially modifying する.


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