23

First, 「おっしゃい」 is the imperative form of the verb 「[仰]{おっしゃ}る」, which is the honorific form of 「[言]{い}う」. 「うそおっしゃい。」 means the exact opposite of what it means literally. Its literal meaning is "Tell a lie!", but that is clearly not something a person would say under normal circumstances, is it?. Thus, 「うそおっしゃい。」 always means "Don't lie (to me)!" A ...


12

~てください comes from the appending the verb くださる in imperative form. But because くださる is considered a polite verb (meaning "give to me"), its imperative is not felt as a direct command but a request. It is used when the speaker feels socially lower than the listener. (Asking for someone to do something for you especially if it's not expected of him places you "...


12

How did the two forms come about? The original imperative did not end in -yo or -ro. In Old Japanese, it took the following form: upper monograde: -i1, upper bigrade: -i2. To this, an emotive -yo may be added, but it was optional. During the transition to EMJ, the 上代特殊仮名遣い distinction 1/2 was lost. This resulted in confusion between the irrealis and ...


11

止まれ is the imperative form, so it's basically equivalent to "Stop!". I'm not sure where you get "rough intransitive" from. 止まる is intransitive already and 止める transitive. Although the imperative is usually considered too blunt for speech, the 止まれ road sign is usually the best example for a standard use of the imperative. The imperative for 五段 verbs (e.g. ...


11

How would you translate this phrase into English? It would depend on context and what I was trying to say, but something like "Throw it away!" I guess. (I am sure that Sekkei Harada had good reasons for writing what he did, but this is the standard interpretation of the surface meaning of what Joshu said -- telling a questioner who believed himself to be ...


10

No, 見る and 諦めた方 are grammatically subjects, not adverbs in those sentences. Words marked with が should be nouns, of course. As you know, noun + がいい (lit. "~ is good", with exhaustive-listing ga) is usually used when you choose one thing from a few possible options. 「ラーメンとカレー、どっちがいい?」「ラーメンがいい。」 If you want to use this with two or more possible actions (...


9

I have some opposing opinions from what Flaw said, so I'll just give it here as a separate answer and let the voters decide if it's justified. There's hopefully some truth in both answers. First, it is my understanding that ~ろ is simply not used unless you essentially want to bark at someone. ~なさい would be used not when you're "socially higher", but when ...


9

I think in that context, that わかるな? uses sense 3 of this entry at Daijirin to "seek agreement or a response". It might be similar to わかるよね? ("you understand, right?") I think すわんな would be a more colloquial form of 座りな/座りなさい "sit down". I think な here is a shortened form of なさい to make a command as in this entry. Note this is different from the ...


9

「おまえ、そんな体験したこともねぇのにわかったようなこと言うなっ」 How can I know? When it's spoken, you could easily tell the difference by the pitch accent: わかったようなこと[言うな]{LHL} ← negative imperative わかったようなこと[言うな]{LHH} ← mild emphasis, emotion But in writing it could be ambiguous. So I'd write it as 「言うなっ!」or 「言うなよ」 etc. to clearly show that it's negative imperative. To clearly ...


9

「お/ご + Verb in 連用形{れんようけい} (continuative form) + なく 」 should be learned as a set phrase meaning "Please do not (verb)." The grammar used here is sort of special. One might say a phrase like 「お願{ねが}いいたします」 is implied or left unsaid at the end. This is an honorific form of a polite request rather than a plain imperative. The honorific お/ご at the beginning ...


8

As Earthling says 止まれ is the imperative form, so it's basically equivalent to "Stop!" In this context the imperative is not "rude", it is quite simply an order.  This also explains why the て-form is not required. 止める is transitive. You would use it to say stop the car, but as in English, it is normal to refer to the person, just as you might say to a taxi ...


8

It's basically the same as (imperative +) よ, i.e. request when the listener doesn't seem to share the same recognition as the speaker when you doubt that the opponent does it. In falling tone*1, it stands for complaint as well as よ, and extra ね softens it, sort of. (*1 Edit: I wrote "falling tone" because of similarity to falling よ, but I should have ...


7

I believe it would be more correct to say 飲みにでも[行かない]{LLLH}?. にでも sounds more natural/correct to me than でもに for reasons I can't explain. Since the whole clause is new information to your friend, you need the "suggestiveness" of the いかない・いきませんか instead of the more "decisive" 行こう. よかったら sounds a little too stiff for a close friend. I'd go with something ...


7

The suffix なさい does not function like the verb なさる ("to do"). Syntactically: the suffix なさい attaches to the 連用形 of verbs the verb なさる behaves essentially exactly like する: it is either is on its own, or attaches to the root of any suru-verb. Semantically: the suffix なさい makes the verb into an imperative and provides no honorification (it almost provides ...


7

I think you could say something like this:   出かけないでおこう     (plain)   出かけないでおきましょう  (polite) Since your example includes 出かけません, I assume you want the polite version.


7

Adjectives (both 形容詞 (a.k.a. -i adjectives) and 形容動詞 (a.k.a. -na adjectives)) do not have the same sort of conjugational forms as verbs do, but I'll do my best to give you an equivalent of the verb forms to which you're referring. They often just borrow from other verbs (mostly だ) when appropriate. I'll use 深い (deep) and 深刻な (deep, serious) as my examples, ...


7

It's not a word on its own, but a combination of 来い (imperative "come") and や (see #3 in this dictionary entry). As l'électeur pointed out in the comments, it can be understood as a "tough guy's imperative."


7

The general rule is to write words with auxiliary function in kana, so it's usually written 働かなくてはいけない Searching the Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese (BCCWJ, 少納言, http://www.kotonoha.gr.jp/shonagon), なくてはいけない has 902 results from books, newspapers, blogs, etc., whereas なくては行けない has only 4 results from internet sources (3 from Yahoo! ブログ, ...


7

Yes, ~するでない is an old-fashioned and pompous way of saying "Don't do ~!". In modern Japanese, this is a kind of 役割語 (stereotyped role words) which is typically used by noble and/or old people in manga and samurai dramas. This seems to have been used a lot more 100 years ago or so, because I can find many similar expressions (eg. 泣くでない, 穢すでない, 淋しがるでない) in ...


6

Yes, 終止形 can be used as a command like in this manga. Translation: "Then stand up right away!" It sounds like parents or school teachers ordering their kids to do something right away. It's weaker/friendlier than 「立て」 but stronger than 「立って下さい」. I believe such use of 終止形 is not usually heard in military organizations, so the right person sounds rather ...


6

For one, you are confusing transitive (起こす) and intransitive (起きる) verbs. Your "immediate thought" would be Please wake up at 6am tomorrow. 明日、6時に 起きて ください。 Secondly, you should keep in mind that the direct object (here, of the transitive verb 起こす) may be omitted, whence 明日、6時に起こしてください。 Please wake [someone] up at 6am tomorrow. where [someone] = ...


6

Dictionary form: 「Te-form of Verb A + から + に + する 」 Imperative form: 「Te-form of Verb A + から + に + しろ(or せよ) 」 This is a common set phrase meaning "Do (something) only after doing A." The translation you provided is passable but is certainly not a very literal one. 「[早]{はや}く[寝]{ね}るのはいいけど、せめて[晩飯食]{ばんめしく}って[風呂入]{ふろはい}ってからにしろ。」 In this sentence, 「しろ」=...


6

This is a remnant of the Classical Japanese form named 「[命令形]{めいれいけい}の[放任法]{ほうにんほう}」. 命令形 means "imperative form", 放任、”noninterference”, "permission", etc. and 法, "rule". Native speakers, young or old, still use the 命令形の放任法 on a daily basis, but very few Japanese-learners seem to be able use it actively. In short, the nuance of this form is "Do as you ...


6

You could also say it in the sense of "let's give up on going out". 天気が悪いので、出かけるのをやめよう(かな)。


6

Needless to say, both have the same meaning and both are informal. ちょっと待って is more versatile in that basically anyone, regardless of age, gender and other general characteristics of the speaker, can use it in nearly all informal situations where one wants to ask another person to wait a second. ちょっと待った fairly strictly chooses the speakers and situations. ...


6

This is the [命令形]{めい・れい・けい} - imperative form. It translates more like O dream boat, go/move on to the shore of tomorrow Which is almost what you have. The difference is that the singer is addressing the boat (夢の船よ), not saying "go on" the boat.


6

Seems to be the imperative-form verb 楽{たの}しめ together with the particle よ. 楽しめ 楽{たの}しむ is the original verb, which means "to enjoy oneself". 楽{たの}しめ, the imperative form, is formed by changing む to め. Imperative-form verbs are blunt, and are used in emergencies, in commands, to be rude, etc. Thus 楽{たの}しめ roughly means "Enjoy yourself!" (As a command). よ ...


5

It's a simple imperative plus quoting particle. A basic "he told me to pay for the cleaning," or "tell me to go" or "told me to eat," essentially the same thing as what you offered as translations. It's a form of direct quotation and this doesn't really constitute a special case.


5

~くれ The word, くれ, is a special word. The original form of this is くれる (呉れる) and the imperative form is くれろ, while it's a deprecated expression. According to Daijirin: 〔命令形は「くれ」が普通〕 その動作者{どうさしゃ}が話{はな}し手{て}または話題{わだい}の人物{じんぶつ}のために何{なん}らかの動作{どうさ}をすることを表{あらわ}す (Translation: [くれ is general in imperative form] This means that the hearer do ...


5

Even though it may look like an imperative in that translation, it would not be expressly called "imperative" among us native speakers. It is only "imperative-ish" at best. 「のよ」 makes a phrase a soft-sounding and mostly-feminine way to remind the listener of the need to perform a certain action (as in a good piece of advice). 「わからない事は聞くのよ。」: mostly ...


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