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Old and Classical Japanese adjectives Let's look just at the ones that end in ~い in modern Japanese, classed as 形容詞【けいようし】 in mainstream Japanese-language grammars. This includes the ~ましい adjectives you mention in your question, while excluding ~な adjectives (technically 形容【けいよう】動詞【どうし】) like 静【しず】か or 大胆【だいたん】. The Japanese Wikipedia has a brief ...


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You are correct. The "stem" of a word is the part that remains the same when you conjugate it or otherwise combine it with other words. So for verbs, the ます-stem is what's left when you remove the ます from the ます form (which for ichidan verbs is the same as removing the る from the plain form, but that doesn't extend to godan or irregular verbs). So, ...


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