9

there is perhaps some historical connection between the く sound and い sound, either phonologically or semantically. I think the answer from blutorange addresses this. Maybe these two classes of words [〜い adjectives and 〜く verbs] diverged from the same class of words somehow? I'll disagree with blutorange about this part, as his answer is (I believe) ...


9

Is it by any chance the case that, historically, the い-adjective ending 〜かった is a contraction originating from 〜くあった, where あった is the past inflection of ある? That's exactly what you're seeing. For ~い adjectives, there were three base conjugation forms: ~し -- 終止形【しゅうしけい】: terminal / conclusive, for ending a sentence of clause. ~き -- 連体形【れんたいけい】: ...


5

たくて is the te-form of たい "want to". The form たくて only has one function, to make a subordinate clause of the verb before ("wanting to V", "want to V, so/and"), that connects to a main verb (predicate), unless it is used with certain idioms that need te-form for other reasons. Then where did the main verb go? In this case, the sentence is inverted. The ...


5

I'm the one who wrote the majority of that article (some ~10 years ago!), so I apologize if that section was a bit confusing when comparing the Kagoshima forms to their standard Japanese counterparts. As @mamster pointed out, for some of the entries in that table, the root word used in Kagoshima is completely different from that used in standard Japanese. ...


4

"no it's just wrong" :-) In your reply 新しいの, the の means "one", as in "the new one". This の behaves like a noun and the i-adjective directly modifies this. 背が高いの would be grammatical ("the one who is tall") though I think it would be very rude and non-standard. 背が高い方 would be grammatical ("the person who is tall"). Again the i-adjective directly modifies ...


4

This 紛れもなく is like an adverb, but I think it is modifying not a single word but an entire clause, like English disjunct (also known as sentence adverbs). This 紛れもなく is emphasizing 今この瞬間が全て as a whole. A similar example is: 間違いなく彼は犯人だ。 = 彼は間違いなく犯人だ。 He is definitely the culprit. Note that the ku-form of an adjective can also modify another adjective, ...


4

Question 1 ~ますまい is grammatical, but it's already fairly uncommon. It's mainly heard in role languages for stereotypical samurai and pompous/noble elderly people. ~ですまい is ungrammatical, although ~ではありますまい is okay. Question 2 Basically if you used ある for a person, it would sound more or less archaic. ~くありましょう is grammatical, but it's fairly uncommon and ...


4

優しさ The suffix (接尾辞)「さ」, attached to the stem (語幹) of i-adjectives and na-adjectives, turns them into the noun form, like this: i-adjective おおきい "big" - stem おおき + suffix さ → おおきさ "size" na-adjective にぎやかな "lively" - stem にぎやか + suffix さ → にぎやかさ "liveliness" A few more examples: i-adjectives: かわいい "cute" → かわいさ "cuteness" [長]{なが}い "long" → 長さ "...


4

That is indeed correct. The -く form is the 連用形 (infinitive) of the adjectives, and from the earliest times it had the possibility to attach the verb -ar as an auxiliary to ease the further conjugation in the verbal categories (such as negation, mood, aspect). But, with the great reshuffle of the verbal paradigm during Late Middle Japanese (Ashikaga shogunate)...


4

忙しい or other states of being (not limited to i-adjectives) have some duration for which the state remains. On the other hand, に stands for a pinpoint time during the date within the day. I mean, a day in particular has 24 hours, that sounds like a range to me 14日 can be a time period that has width, but 14日に indicates a point in the 14th day. Moreover, ...


3

For: それ は おそくない くるま です。 the basic sentence is それは くるま です That is a car. But おそくない modifies くるま to give "that is a car which is not slow". For: それ は おそい くるま じゃ ありません。 the basic sentence is それは くるま じゃありません That is not a car But おそい modifies くるま to give "that is not a car which is slow". So the main difference is that in the first ...


3

Coining new godan verbs (u-verbs) is far from exceptional in modern Japanese, and we have many related questions on this site. What are the principles behind turning foreign language words into verbs?(e.g. ググる and サボる) Characteristics of 'loan word root + る' verbs Can you form verbs from 擬態語 or 擬音語 by adding -る? Meaning and validity of 雪ってる What ...


3

i-adjectives like やすい turn into adverbs via the rule -i → -ku for example やすい → やすく 早い → 早く 新しい → 新しく The i-adjective やすい can attach as a suffix to the masu-stem of a verb like 分かる, but the result 分かりやすい is grammatically still an i-adjective and in the phrase 分かりやすくいえば 分かりやすく is an adverb for the verb いう (here in the form いえば). (Similarly, 早くいう "to ...


3

Let me show my idea to explain this really difficult question. After the “(Absolute time)に” we basically expect something happening or something changed. Adjectives and adjectival nouns are just for describing status of something and that’s far from happening, that's probably why it doesn’t fit in the sentences like your example. In order to grasp this idea ...


3

I think (1) is best. (2) is unnatural. If you want to place 新しい at (2), you need to change 新しい to the continuative form of it, which is 新しく, because the adjective modifies a verb 買う. You can place 新しい or 新しく at (3), but If 新しい is placed at (3), a comma is necessary between 新しい and お母さん because it can mean 新しいお母さん(new mother).


3

Yes, the conjugation rule is consistent with all the い-adjectives. There are a few notable exceptional cases where they can also syntactically be nouns: 近い→近く: adjectival: 近くのX - the nearby X noun: Xの近く - the vicinity of X 多い→多く: adjectival: 多くのX


2

Question 1. Is it also possible, either historically or currently, to use the 〜ます form on the ある portion of the "historical adjective inflections" above? We can find plenty of examples for 高くありませんでした. Even if we limit our search to Google Books, to weed out other Q&A sites like this one. :) Likewise, searches for 高くありました and 高くありません find sensible ...


2

Yes, for example consider the beginning of 枕草子【まくらのそうし】: 美【うつく】しきもの。瓜【うり】に描【か】きたる稚児【ちご】の顔【かお】。 If you rewrite the adjective and verb forms to their modern form: 美しいもの。瓜に描いてある稚児の顔。 Observe that an adjective such as 美しい was originally 美しき (before a noun, 美し at the end of a sentence), with a shift of き→い, see イ音便. 咲いて was originally 咲きて, where you can ...


2

It's a compound word from the stem of あざとい combined with かわいい, in other words, one word. Edit: It means to be cute in a manner that you boldly show yourself that way.


2

Problem I think the confusion comes from the fact that both kind of words are labelled as い-adjectives and な-adjectives, creating the illusion or expectation that both types of words function grammatically in the same way, and that where you would use い for one type, you can expect to use な for the other. This expectation is not true. Let's compare both ...


2

The two people already know what they are talking about, so they can safely omit the subject and say "大きいですか?" or "綺麗ですか?". But that's all you can do safely. "大きいか?" is a grammatical question, but it always sounds very blunt and unfriendly. This sounds almost like you are a stubborn dwarf blacksmith living alone in a cave. It's inappropriate not only in ...


1

分かりやすく簡潔に書くのは難しいですよね Writing simply and concisely is difficult, isn't it? Both 分かりやすく and 簡潔に are acting adverbially to modify 書く. Let's start with why you wouldn't use を here. を marks the object of the verb, i.e. it marks the thing that actually gets written, for example, a letter, a poem etc. It doesn't make sense to 'write a brevity' so を is not the ...


1

Na-adjectives and i-adjectives are the most common. There are also no-adjectives (although they are just nouns from the standpoint of Japanese people). And there are also rare archaic forms, which may be encountered when you have reached advanced level and start reading literary works.


1

~たい is an auxiliary verb that conjugates like an い adjective. 壊す + たい + て = 壊したくて.


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