33

怖い indeed means both "to be scary" and "to be scared" depending on the context. You may feel this is insane, but English has similar examples, too, so let me explain about this first. In English, "I am sad" means this person is feeling sorrow, but "The news is sad" does not mean this news is feeling sorrow. Why? Because "sad" has two distinct meanings, "to ...


21

だ is the plain-form copula (the "is; to be" word). In the plain form, い adjectives already form a complete predicate (the piece of a sentence or clause that can complete that sentence or clause). In translation, it's like the い adjective already includes the "is" meaning -- so 速い would be "[it] is fast", not just "fast". Since だ is only used to provide a ...


19

To give a few working examples: 私は猫が怖い。 I'm scared of cats. 恵美子ちゃんは猫は平気みたいだけど、私は怖いらしい。 Emiko seems to be fine around cats, but apparently is scared of me. 僕は怖いよ。 I'm scary, just so you know. That makes 私は怖い officially ambiguous and the answer to your question must be "both, depending on the context".


18

I would have no choice but to say that there is a difference. Little particles do have that kind of power and influence over much bigger words than themselves. You would sound like you are a little more satisfied with your job if you said 「[今]{いま}の[仕事]{しごと}は[悪]{わる}くないです。」 than when you said 「今の仕事は悪くはないです。」. This is a prime example of the contrastive は. ...


16

The misunderstanding here is that this isn't the negative conjugation of the word 少{すく}ない. This is the dictionary form. The negative conjugation of 少{すく}ない is 少{すく}なくない.


14

Grammatically speaking, there really are no adjectives in Japanese. i-adjectives are just special verbs. i-adjectives have many of the same inflections as do verbs, and they fulfill a grammatical role essentially equivalent to that of verbs. Therefore, 電車は速い is a complete sentence meaning "the train is fast", where 速い is the predicate. i-adjective + です ...


13

As answered, 少ない is not a negative form of an adjective, but rather already the dictionary form. It is only coincidentally pronounced the same way as the negative form of other い-adjectives. It might be interesting to know that the dictionary entry of すくない also shows alternative kanji (including archaic versions), where the only kana visible after the ...


10

It is しい-adjectives rather than いーadjectives that we should be looking at here. しい-adjectives are adjectives that end in 「しい」, and not just 「い」. Examples: [愛]{いと}しい (beloved)、[懐]{なつ}かしい (dear old)、[麗]{うるわ}しい (graceful)、[妖]{あや}しい (mysterious), etc. 「しい-Adjective - い + の」 (Drop the い and add a の) makes a kind of elegant word out of the しい-adjective ...


10

There are at least three types of omission of く, which should be distinguished. The "traditional western" euphoric change is called ウ音便 and is described in this question, this one and a chart in this page. ku becomes (y)u, etc. This sounds old-fashioned and elegant. While this is commonly heard in samurai dramas, only a few courteous elder people use this ...


10

"Aがこわい" commonly means "A is horrible(scary)", "I am scared of A". So 私がこわい is commonly interpreted as "I am horrible(scary)". For example, 昨日、友達に意地悪をしてしまった。私がこわい. If you want to say "I am scared", you can say "私はこわい", "私はこわがっている". However, "Aはこわい" can mean both "A is horrible(scary)" and "A is scared", so if you clearly want to mean ""A is scared", you ...


10

It's uttered as a colloquial, casual and exclamatory phrase. It's typically used in response to a situation/stimulation that strikes you suddenly. っ is often added after the stem. 高っ! (Wow,) it's expensive! やば(っ)! (Wow,) this is bad! 痛っ! Ouch! きもちわる(っ)! Gross! In formal settings, you should generally avoid this, but no one would blame you for ...


9

The standard form is おもしろくて仕方ない, where おもしろくて is used as an adjective (not adverb) in the て-form for connecting predicates. (て-form adjective) + 仕方ない or (たい-form verb in て-form) + 仕方ない is a common phrase that means “It's so (adjective)” or “I really want to (verb)”. The nuance of this 仕方ない is “I can't stand it”, but it's not to be taken literally, ...


9

This isn't simply 美味しい, but 美味しそう. The そう suffix means 'appears to be', and it takes な. When I saw a photo of delicious-looking food, I couldn't help but drool.


9

Is it by any chance the case that, historically, the い-adjective ending 〜かった is a contraction originating from 〜くあった, where あった is the past inflection of ある? That's exactly what you're seeing. For ~い adjectives, there were three base conjugation forms: ~し -- 終止形【しゅうしけい】: terminal / conclusive, for ending a sentence of clause. ~き -- 連体形【れんたいけい】: ...


9

there is perhaps some historical connection between the く sound and い sound, either phonologically or semantically. I think the answer from blutorange addresses this. Maybe these two classes of words [〜い adjectives and 〜く verbs] diverged from the same class of words somehow? I'll disagree with blutorange about this part, as his answer is (I believe) ...


8

Shogakukan does list the 難有 combination with a reading of ありがた in one place, in the title of a kabuki play: 難有御江戸景清. Poking around online suggests that this is read as ありがたやめぐみのかげきよ. The reversed kanji order would match Chinese syntax better than Japanese, making me wonder if this is simply a kanbun style of spelling. EDIT: Googling a bit more brought up ...


8

This is not a 'productive' grammar. There are certain cases (e.g. 近い・近くの、多い・多くの) where there are both noun and i-adjective forms, but you don't generally see "高くの". Where the noun form exists it will generally have a dictionary entry as well. And of course, there are only a few basic colours which even have the i-adjective form. For the colours, ...


8

新たな sounds more literary, as already pointed out. In addition, the usage of 新た is limited. 新たな/新たに is only used to describe something is created/started from scratch. When you want to compare the age or freshness of something, 新しい is the only choice. In addition, at least in modern Japanese, 新たな/新たに only works as a modifier (新たな is adjectival, 新たに, ...


8

デジタル大辞泉 says 遠く is a noun which means 遠いところ. So yes, it was somehow nominalized and lexicalized in this form long ago. At least we can say 遠くから来る, 遠くに行く, 遠くへ行く, 遠くを見つめる, 遠くで音がする, 遠くの国, 遠くがよく見える, and so on. 近く works in the same way. The list of similar expressions is very small, according to this article. Here's the list: 古く (old time), 早く (early time), 遅く (...


8

好きくない is indeed not proper grammar. It is sometimes used by children (and hence in fiction for children or childlike characters), reanalyzing 好き which should be a na-adjective 好き(な) as an i-adjective *好きい, hence *好きくない or *好きかった.


8

有名 is a na-adjective and thus is followed by だ・で・な・に (or by じゃ < では) あの人は有名だ lit. that person is famous あの人は有名な人だ lit. that person is a famous person あの人はきっと有名になる lit. that person is surely going to become famous You can think of ではありません or じゃありません as the negative of です (which in turn is the polite form of だ whose negative would be ではない or じゃない). Hence ...


8

In this specific case, yes, 青空 and 青い空 both mean "blue sky". When used on their own, there is no surprising connotation and thus they are interchangeable. But 青空~ in a compound noun can mean "open-air" or "outdoor" (e.g., 青空教室 is not the same as 青い空教室). Note that it's not always true for similar pairs. 白紙 is not the same as 白い紙, and 赤本 is not the same as ...


8

欲しいが仮眠する is plainly wrong if it's intended to mean "I want to take a nap". It can mean "I want it, but I'll take a nap (for now)" depending on the context. However, the following sentences make sense: アズリムが可愛いんじゃない、可愛いがアズリムなんだ It's not that Azulim is cute, but that (being) cute is (being) Azulim! (i.e., Azulim is the only person who deserves the word cute.)...


8

First things first. こわい means "to be scary". It's not a verb. It's an i-adjective, which means it describes a state of something, hence the inclusion of "to be". So 私がこわい means "I'm scary" (to be exact, I think it's: "[Who is scary?] I am the scary one") rather than "I'm scared". That could be: 私はこわい which is using the topic particle は and the so-called "...


8

The double negation of i-adjectives not only exists, but it is quite commonly used among us native speakers when expressing opinions indirectly. Take 「おいしい」 ("tasty") for example, by far the most common double-negative form would be: 「おいしくなくはない」 which means: "(the food) is okay/passable if not great" That sounds fairly indirect, doesn't it? The ...


7

〜くない (casual) 〜くありません (formal) It's basically that simple. So saying 寒くありません is more formal than saying 寒くない. However, I feel that saying 寒くありません is a bit stiff even if you are trying to be polite. Instead, saying 寒くないです sounds more natural and is also more polite than leaving off the です.


7

Your understanding is correct. 速い refers to one's speed and 早い refers to time. However, 早い has more uses than just meaning early. Check: How to distinguish between the meanings of "quickly", "soon" and "early" for 早く. 早く来る would mean coming quickly with the focus on getting there on time, not particularly on getting there with ...


7

The basic grammar The し ending on adjectives is the Classical Japanese 終止形【しゅうしけい】 or "terminal form", i.e. the conjugation to use when the word comes at the end of a sentence. The Classical Japanese 連体形【れんたいけい】 or "attributive form" (the conjugation to use when modifying a noun or other substantive) is き. For modern adjective 広い, the 終止形 and 連体形 are the ...


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