17

Adding -さん is definitely not conventional as a formal Japanese name card. But English-only name cards are not conventional in the first place, and hardly sticking to the traditional style may not be always good for a startup. Getting to know how to call each other is one of the difficult tasks in foreign communications. If I received a name card with ムルさん on ...


15

It sounds like you are looking for the vocative case particle in Japanese. Taken from wikipedia's article on vocative case: In archaic Japanese, or when written as verse, a particle よ and や may be affixed. 少年よ、大志を抱け (Boys, be ambitious, quote by William S. Clark) 神よ、汝の誉れはその御名のごとく (O God, Thy praise is according to Thine name, from Bach'...


15

The pronounciation さん being derived from [様]{さま}, I guess it should never be written using the kanji.


14

The group mentality is very strong in Japan. When talking to an outsider about your company members, it's like you are talking about yourself. You must never use さん when talking about yourself. It would feel to the outsider like you are acting superior and putting yourself(your boss) on a pedestal. A little bit like those brats that everyone hates in anime ...


14

As a general rule, almost all verbs can be transformed into an honorific form, and many, but not all, can be transformed into a humble form*. The chart you pasted lists special/irregular forms. So, for verbs not listed in that chart, you can usually transform them into the basic/regular honorific/humble forms, like this: Honorific forms: 「お~~になる」 ...


13

「おいかがですか?」("How are you feeling?") should probably be avoided even though some native speakers actually say it. The reason for that, however, is not that there is already 「です」 in there expressing politeness. Rather, it is because the word 「いかが」 is already on the pretty polite and formal side. Adding the honorific 「お」 to it does make it sound overly ...


12

I don't know of any dictionary or reference book, but since 御 is most often written as お or ご, as appropriate, you could check the Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese (BCCWJ, 少納言, http://www.kotonoha.gr.jp/shonagon) as the proper way of "doing Google counting". For 忙しい and 自分 the numbers are お忙しい 217 results ご忙しい 0 results お自分 8 results, ...


10

Since honorifics generally apply when you are interacting directly with that person, they usually aren't used for people that have died (Maybe spiritual mediums do something different because they are supposedly 'interacting directly' with the deceased, but I don't know). Think of great people from Japanese history: 織田信長(おだのぶなが) 徳川家康(とくがわいえやす) 聖徳太子(しょうとくたいし)...


10

Totally unrelated. 山 さん [mountain] is a Chinese word "shān" assimilated in Japanese. さん as a honorific suffix is an old さま undergone some phonetical change. There are many homophones in Japanese besides that.


10

According to デジタル大辞泉, the Agency for Cultural Affairs (文化庁) conducted a study on this topic and found that 69.2% of people used お疲れ様 to someone of a higher rank vs. 15.1% for ご苦労様. To someone of a lower rank, 53.4% used お疲れ様, vs. 36.1% for ご苦労様. So I would conclude from this that it is safe to use お疲れ様 to someone of a higher rank, whereas ご苦労様 should ...


10

There used to be a clear bias toward men, but today you can safely use 氏 for women as well. If you read articles written in the Meiji or Taisho period, you'll probably see 氏 used for men and 女史 for women with a high social status. I found an example here. Note that horizontal sentences were written from right to left in those days. Today, 女史 has almost ...


10

Yes, that happens very often in real life when: 1) Small children refer to or address animals. 2) Adults talk to small kids about animals. Even adults often use 「ちゃん」 and 「君{くん}」 to refer to or address the pets of poeple they know well, which is just like referring to or addressing their friends' kids. Here are songs about An elephant (ぞう): https://www....


9

様 is more respectful than 殿. The reason Ammy gets it wrong is because 殿 used to be more respectful in the past, but it has changed overtime and 様 has become more respectful. Nowadays, 殿 is used as a fixed expression in some circles. Many companies use it in their e-mails when referring to a coworker, but I would use 様 instead if I were referring to someone ...


9

お…になる sounds more respectful than …れる to me. In particular, when used to ask for the listener to do something in speech (for example at a restaurant), こちらでお待ちになってください is fine, but こちらで待たれてください sounds impolite (not respectful enough) to me. I do not know whether this difference is counted as “just the tone” or not.


9

“Are they used?” and “Are they acceptable?” are different questions. The regular forms such as お借りします and お食べになります are used, but they are less formal than the irregular forms such as 拝借します and 召し上がります. Whether the less formal expressions are acceptable or not depends on how formally you want to speak. By the way, you are confusing grammatical terms “...


9

In language, a process is said to be productive if it can produce new words (or phrases, etc.). For example, in English, you can add un- to lots of words, so we say that un- affixation is a productive process. And in Japanese, affixing go- and o- to words is relatively productive. But when a word can no longer be formed via a productive process in the ...


9

Yes. ~様 is an honorific and can be easily thought of as a more respectful version of ~さん. It is gender neutral, so it can be used by both men and women when addressing either gender. It is often used when addressing someone of a higher social position, or someone for whom you have high regards. On a day-to-day basis, it's commonly used to address ...


9

おいかが(ですか) sounds unnatural. いかが(ですか) is already polite so you don't need to add お.


8

The reason is fairly simple, but probably not going to going to be as pattern based as you would hope. お[水]{みず} is an example of a segment of Japanese known as [美化語]{びかご}, this is more or less means being more polite by using a nicer sounding word. Some example of this are [食]{た}べる instead of [食]{く}う [美味]{おい}しい instead of [旨]{うま}い お[昼]{ひる} instead of [昼]...


8

It was a common practice during the Edo and Meiji periods and on through Taishou and early Shouwa periods. Women's names back then tended to be short (mostly two-syllable long and sometimes just one as OP's example) and surprisingly simple compared to their present-day counterparts. Baby girls were often named literally after simple plant, flower and ...


8

There are simply too many to mention. Here are some of the more common trios of words presented in the order of [尊敬語]{そんけいご}--[普通語]{ふつうご}--[謙譲語]{けんじょうご}. English: Respectful (your ~~) -- General (a/an ~~) -- Humble (my/our ~~) Shop: [貴店]{きてん}--[店]{みせ}--[当店]{とうてん} School: [貴校]{きこう}--[学校]{がっこう}--[当校]{とうこう} Bank: [貴行]{きこう}--[銀行]{ぎんこう}--[当行]{とうこう} ...


8

This is called 「ウ[音便]{おんびん}」 and it is one type of the 「音便 (euphonic sound changes)」 that took place around Heian period (794 - 1185). 「ウ音便」, in the simplest terms possible, is the dropping of the "k" consonant from the [連用形]{れんようけい} (continuative form) of i-adjectives. The 連用形 of 「うれしい」 is 「うれしく」. Drop the "k" from 「うれしく」 and you have 「うれしう」. To make 「...


7

It's fine for ski instructors and pretty much anyone else who teaches you something. Using it as an honorific after the name is a little more formal than just using 先生 by itself. But it conveys your respect and appreciation for the fact that they are imparting their knowledge to you. I think it's possible someone might correct you and say that just さん is ...


7

お馬鹿さん isn't "idiot"; it is softer, more like "silly". Also note the -san suffix. If a little boy named Daisuke is looking for his cap, while actually wearing it, you could say, 今日、大ちゃんは ちょっと お馬鹿さんになってきた、ね! 灯台もと暗し This is soft compared to something abrupt like おまえが馬鹿だよ! There is a need in language to have a soft way to say "silly". This is not to say that ...


7

お + [masu-stem] + ください is keigo (honorific speech) for [te-form] + ください. This rule works for verbs, which don't have a separate keigo verb, e.g. 切る お切りください If the verb does have a separate keigo form, the formation is different: お見ください → ご覧ください お言いください → おっしゃってください お行きください → いらしてください お来ください → おこしください


7

-たん is a lisped version of -ちゃん. It's probably the most cute-sounding, casual name suffix in Japanese. There are many fictional (usually female) characters who are always called with -たん. OS-tan (oh, this article has an explanation for -tan, too) Binchō-tan You should never use -たん in business settings even though it may be grammatically classified as an "...


7

You cannot say 「お恋人{こいびと}」; That sounds very weird. 「お付{つ}き合{あ}いの方{かた}」 is okay. Other natural-sounding expressions would include: ・交際相手{こうさいあいて}の方{かた} ・交際されている方 ・お相手{あいて}の方 ・お相手の男性{だんせい}/女性{じょせい}(の方) ・お付{つ}き合{あ}いされている方 ・恋人{こいびと}の~~さん/~~氏{し}


6

In particular, inside a company, would it be normal to use 尊敬語・謙譲語・丁重語 with anyone older or higher in rank? It seems like that might be too excessive. Does usage depend on factors such as context or personality? This is very tricky even for a native Japanese, and it does vary among companies. One has to observe others and gauge what the temperature is (aka ...


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