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Origins Modern Japanese 十 read as じゅう comes from older Classical Japanese じふ, originally read as //d͡ʑipu//, in turn from Middle Chinese //d͡ʑiɪp̚//. The basic shift was for the //p// sound in //d͡ʑipu// to lenite (soften) into more like an //f// sound (specifically [[ɸ]], a bilabial, unlike the English [[f]] that is a labiodental). Then, the medial (mid-...

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