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14

The general method of counting in Japanese poetry is by a rhythmic unit known as the mora (morae or moras in plural). A mora is (essentially) the length of a single (full-sized) kana; so is a bit different from a syllable. For instance: A long vowel is counted as one syllable, but two moras. e.g. えい is a single syllable, but is two moras. ん is counted as a ...


12

The problem is that the writing is not only old and cursive, but using a lot of obsolete variant kana (hentaigana) that you'd no longer see in the modern documents. Using hentaigana supported by Unicode (a font that can display them or another is recommended), the writing on the two cups can be displayed as follows. Cup A reads: □/の山/二丁/𛂜𛂻れ𛂞(?)/大悲/閣 ...


10

This is not particle-へ. Rather it is old kana orthography and さう sound-shifted to そう. In modern orthography it is 逢えそうな【あえそうな】 (Many monolingual dictionaries list old kana orthography of the entries where applicable, but of course the particular inflection あへさう would not be listed under あう.)


8

I finally found it thanks to @broccoli forest's link in the comments. The book says: And when the Lady Kaga no Chiyo lost her husband she wrote, merely: All things that seem Are but One dreamer's dream I sleep 1 wake How wide The bed with none beside." Then, having lost also her child, she added two lines: ...


6

I don't know if @l'électeur's comments were rhetorical or otherwise, but I only find the poem as 若葉 (not 落葉) and written by 蕪村 (not 芭蕉). Here's a more reliable reference from 青空文庫 蕪村には直ちに若葉を詠じたるもの十余句あり。皆若葉の趣味を発揮せり。例、 [...] をちこちに滝の音聞く若葉かな [...] It might not be relevant any longer, but the historical spelling for the お in おちる was just お, and not を, as ...


5

As a complement to answer above, the old Japanese writing has thrown another monkey wrench into your way to conquering the Japanese literal world: Kuzushiji. So, you get to make sure aren't any of those symbols kuzushiji. Basically, kuzushiji are cursive style characters, but they can be so far from the printed forms that it may take an expert or a well-...


5

実用日本語表現辞典 explains 春うらら as: 春うらら 春のうららかな様子。明るく朗らかで、の‌​‌​どかなさま。 明鏡国語辞典 explains うらら as: う‌​らら【麗ら】〘形容動詞‌​〙うららか。『うららに照る日』『春のうら‌​らの隅田川〈花〉』 and うららか as: ​うららか【麗‌​らか】〘形容動詞〙①空が明るく‌​晴れて‌​日がのどかに照っているさま。うらら‌​。‌​『うららかな日和』 I think 春うらら is a word that describes... a sunny, clear, bright, mild, lovely, happy, and peaceful spring day. I see that you've already ...


5

Some haiku do not strictly follow the 5-7-5 pattern. Irregular haiku with one more or less morae than usual are called 字余り or 字足らず, respectively. Some haiku even ignore the 5-7-5 rule completely (See 自由律俳句). Wikipedia says 一茶's haiku do have many variations: 最も多くの俳句を残したのは、正岡子規で約24,000句であるが、一茶の句は類似句や異形句が多いため、数え方によっては、子規の句数を上回るかもしれない。よく知られている「我と来て遊べや親のない雀」...


4

Note that in Japanese poetry, there is a marked avoidance of moraic ん as well as Sino-Japanese lexicon and onbin, so the question is often irrelevant as all the syllables occurring are of form CV. However, if required, きょ would be still one syllable (strictly saying, mora), while じゃく or った be two.


4

In this context, すがら roughly means "throughout". Therefore, 夜{よ}もすがら means something like "throughout the night" or "all night long". So, the subject of the haiku was walking around the pond the entire autumn night.


2

Grammatically 蛙飛び込む modifies 水の音 as a relative clause. It's not that 水の音 modifies 蛙飛び込む. Japanese is an almost pure head-final language, which means a modifying part almost always comes before a modified part. This relative clause is a bit special, and it's a bit hard to give a very literal translation of 蛙飛び込む水の音. This is called a gapless relative clause ...


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