Let's dive into this etymology.
(My reference, unless otherwise stated, is Shogakukan's 国語大辞典. I've got a dead-tree copy, and there's also a decent online version available for free via Kotobank. Note that Kotobank's layout is a bit confusing for terms spelled with kanji that have multiple readings.)
Listed here as first ...
I think you're referring to
ikaga desu ka
which is the polite version of
dou desu ka
How are things?
It can be used to ask "How are you?" in a polite way, but only with caution: いかがですか【ikaga desu ka】 is mostly used to mean "Would you like some?", so if you're holding something in your hand, one might assume you're offering to give ...
This is just "Hi".
こんちゃ/こんちわ/ちわ/ちは/etc is a very casual version of こんにちは. Of course this は is pronounced "wa".
For "ーす", see: What does っす at the end of a sentence mean?
Jisho.org also has an entry for this. Other variations include ちわっす, こんちゃっす, ちゃーっす, ちゃーす, ちっす and ちーす.
I agree with @MichaelChirico and @Earthliŋ♦. Let me add a different viewpoint.
To say goodbye we often use many variant versions of "sayonara" such as:
These have basically the same original meaning of "さようなら". Direct meaning is "Since that is the case, (let's call it a day)" or something like that. I think it's also similar to "then"...
I guess he is asking me about my well being.
In fact, I don't think so. 幸せ usually doesn't mean normal well-being but only the full-of-joy state, that like whoever has their child. It's not a word you use to ask if somebody is fine.
In this case, unless it's typo or mojibake, the final ？ represents some degree of unsureness or hesitation towards previous ...
I also feel that only 様【よう】 could somehow be viewed as "ultimately from Chinese", but the other parts, namely 然【さ】 (now usually written with ateji 左) and なら, are of Japanese origin. Thus it would seem that the phrase さようなら is "ultimately Japanese".
A common word for this is 奇遇【きぐう】 (not to be confused with 奇偶: oddness and evenness (of numbers)). 奇遇ですね is an idiomatic phrase worth memorizing as-is.
こんなところで会うとは奇遇ですね。 What a coincidence to meet you here!
君も北海道生まれか、奇遇だね。 Oh, you were born in Hokkaido, too? What a coincidence.
But if you just said goodbye and then ran into each other soon after ...
As a native Japanese speaker, I have never said お元気ですか to someone I meet almost everyday. You can tell, at a glance, if they are 元気 or not today, if you meet them everyday, right?
お元気ですか seems to me a greeting in letter or in phone call, that is, when you can't see them. You can say お元気ですか when you meet someone you haven't met for a while but still ...
"うぃーす" is a ultra-shortened greetings of, maybe おはようございます or something. "おっす" is one of the variations. Although the etymology is not clear, these are used in several ways.
A sluggish, slow "うぃーっす" is a greeting used between young, mainly male, close friends. I think this is what @Sjiveru described, as something like "yo". People use this when they feel ...
To break it down, はじめまして is the て form of はじめます, and はじめます is the polite form of はじめる.
はじめまして is a fixed expression.
You'll see ～～まして in some fixed expressions such as:
あけましておめでとうございます。-- Happy new year.
どういたしまして。-- You are welcome.
as well as in polite/formal speech or writing such as:
-- Thank you for ...
It isn't common, especially in those mass selling stores. Not I'm highly introvert, but most Japanese don't say anything, or just nod a little (which is a slightest form of bowing).
Of course, they do usual greetings as friends when the clerk and the customer have personal acquaintance (which is pretty often in my neighborhood store), but in most cases, the ...
こちらこそ is a response to よろしくおねがいします. People often say 「こちらこそよろしくお願いします」 for this reason. I don't think we say 「こちらこそはじめまして」 probably because if the other person hasn't met you before, it goes without saying that you haven't met that person either.
This is acceptable, but also unnatural in terms of ...
I guess you've misheard heavily slurred ありがとうございます.
When spoken very quickly, ありがとうございます can be pronounced like ありゃーっす！ or ありわーっす！ or あざーっす！ And ありがとうございました can be more like ありゃーしたぁ！ or あーした！
Similarly, slurred いらっしゃいませ can sound like しあわせ, ラッシュアワースリー, or even エアロスミス.
No, there's no such greeting. In the last 150 years or so, a new era has been associated with the previous Emperor's demise, so it's not a happy event in the first place. This time is an exception, and people may be allowed to say something including おめでとうございます, but there is no fixed, traditional way of saying congratulations.
(Disclaimer: I'm writing this ...
The 行ってきます is no problem.
As for ただいま, even Japanese people hesitate whether use it or not when they're not returning to their own homes.
You can find many questions about using ただいま at in-laws' house, and how to respond to neighbor's おかえり are asked in Japanese forums (as well as here!). I still don't know how to greet back my landlord when she says おかえり to ...
またまた is a word, but as far as I know never used in the sense of "see you later", which, as you know, would be (じゃあ)またね.
(またまた means something like "yet again", e.g. またまた驚かされた "you surprised me yet again".)
"お休みなさい" is appropriate for both genders.
Maybe your male neighbors are the people who don't greet in that situation. That's it. If they greeted orally when leaving, they might say "お休みなさい", too.
Just to be sure, I don't say that your male neighbors are more rude than the female neighbors. I guess some male neighbors might greet only when meeting, or greet ...
はじめまして is a good start. This is how you open the conversation. It's roughly equivalent to "How do you do?" (which people don't really say anymore). You're indicating that it's your first meeting, so you are extending a courteous greeting.
Usually, the next step is to say your name:
(In my case) ロバートと申します (very polite)
ロバートと言います/です (a little more casual).
It doesn't matter. Feel it out based on your relationship with that person and whatever feels right. I have to imagine that if you had contact with someone before and you said 初めまして upon meeting them in person it would be accompanied by that kind of weak laugh of shared awkwardness like "what do I say in this situation?" In other words, meeting people from ...
I guess that you're trying to use 「塚中先生初めまして！」 as a replacement for "Dear 塚中先生," or some other salutation. But I can't say it's a good idea to use the 初めまして sentence in the first line, because in a Japanese email, the first line is commonly used for addressing a contact (organization name, department name, title, contact name). And a greeting is ...
It's ok if:
You are hiking, or climbing
You know them or the social circle is
small enough that you'll see them fairly often (like in a small
village, same block, or in an apartment)
Otherwise it won't be seen as rude, but people will wonder what's going on because it's unusual, especially in big cities. They also might start to try avoid you (like say ...
Whether the exchange is bittersweet or not will depend on them and their relationship.
But yes, it is usable, although I never really had the chance to hear it myself. It does show a rather high level of uncertainty. It can be used when you don't know if you will ever meet again, or if the next time you meet is simply not decided yet and might not be soon.
I don't consider myself an authoritative source, but I did a little searching and found this link that has a bunch of phrases to say on respect for the aged day (敬老の日):
Honestly, I would feel awkward saying many of these myself and might just use a safe "こんにちは” (with a smile), but maybe you could ...
I wondered, if おはようございます is okay then why not おはようです?
Grammatically, おはよう is a contraction of おはようございます, which is a Western dialect form otherwise should be おはやくございます in Standard Japanese. Since おはよう as such is not a valid word except for this fixed idiom, you can attach nothing to おはよう grammatically.
～うございます - keigo い-adjectives
Historical prospective of ...