When you use そう, your judgement can be based on any of your five senses:
[after seeing a dish] おいしそう。
[after hearing about a dish over a phone] おいしそう。
[after lifting a box up] 中に何か入ってそう。
[after smelling a dish] 腐ってそう。
[after tasting a dish] ワサビが入ってそう。
そう for hearsay has nothing to do with this because it must follow a dictionary form of a verb/adjective. "...
I think なり is more nuanced. I found there is an article about this, but I was not very satisfied with his investigation, so the following is basically my own observation.
なり indicates the first verb is either a trigger or a precondition of the second verb. The subject is waiting for, or at least anticipating, the realization of the first event. The first ...
You list several constructions.
The core of all of these is the word よう ("likeness, that-ness"), usually functioning more as an adjective meaning "like / similar to / as if [whatever came before in the sentence]". All the rest of it is particles and auxiliaries. These seem to be what's confusing you, ...
This depends on the context.
Examples of そう applied to the combination of two verbs:
Examples of そう applied only to the second verb (i.e., the first verb describes a known fact):
The two phrases are not identical. The difference is as follows:
世界で一番木の古い建物 = the building whose wood is oldest in the world
世界で一番古い木の建物 = the oldest wooden building in the world
The latter simply refers to the oldest building made of wood, which is 法隆寺. The former refers to a building which uses very old tree. Strictly speaking, the building itself does ...
As you said, it's from a Buddhist (zen) verse 証道歌 which is attributed to 玄覚. As most of zen works are, it's written in colloquial Middle Chinese, not using the usual vocabulary of Classical Chinese or Japanese.
拈得 "able to pick up" ← 拈 (verb) "catch with fingers" + 得 (modal) "have been able to ...; successfully ..."
拈得せん ← 拈得-す (makes verb) + む/ん (auxiliary)...
I think you're right. ～てしょうがない/～てしかたない (without も) can mean "(I) can't help but...", and ～てもしょうがない/～てもしかたない, "(You) shouldn't..."
And you're also right that ～～たって (<た+とて) is a colloquial way of saying ～～ても, "even if".
So these phrases are literally like...
[感情・感覚を表す表現(phrase expressing feeling or emotion)] + て(で) + しかた(が)ない/しょうがない/しようがない (or たまらない/...
You said you are asking about "just generally going back", but it's difficult to answer this without a concrete situation.
音楽を聴きに戻る only means "to return (to the previous location) in order to listen to music". As you probably know, this verb + に + motion-verb construction refers to a spatial movement with a purpose. If you have been ...
Your sentence has two mistakes.
In Japanese, i-adjectives (and i-adjective-like auxiliaries たい/ない) don't need a copula (だ). You should end this sentence with たい alone, without だ. See this.
座りたい means "[I] want to sit" because 座る is always intransitive in Japanese. Using を doesn't automatically make it transitive. Instead of plain 座る, you have to ...
This is going to be long, so bear with me.
One of the main reasons the passive voice is used in language is to be able to control 1) the flow of information and 2) what the subject/topic is at any given moment. Stephen Pinker gave a great explanation of this in English in one of his lectures which you can find here.
Basically, certain sentences or parts of ...
in that context means "if I were to be judged [on my communication skills] based on [when I am with] Bさん"
「Ｂさんといるところ」 means "a moment/scene when [I] am with Bさん", and that moment is what's being (hypothetically) judged.
To explain the context, let's say we have three people:
the speaker, S
some person A who S finds easy to talk to, i.e. 「...
This やれ is basically an old interjection similar to "O", "Lo" or "Oh my". See this dictionary entry. As an standalone interjection, it's no longer used in modern conversations. (A similar interjection, やれやれ, is still common.)
However, it's still used in the form of やれ A だ やれ B だ or やれ A だの やれ B だの to list two (or more) things. This expresses A and B may be ...
ところ, which literally just means "place", can be used to describe a quality or aspect of something. This is a metaphorical extension of ところ's literal meaning as a location in space/time.
Everyone has both good qualities and bad qualities.
He can be a bit of a chicken at times. (lit. He also has a slight ...
I'm not sure if I actually learned this in my classes, but I hear and use this all the time. Imagine it as saying "There are days you want to cry, aren't there?". The じゃない is being used to ask for confirmation from the other person rather than negate the statement itself. To negate this sentence I would change the ある to ない, but in this context it sounds a ...
「同性から」= 'From the same sex'
「見たって」= 'even seeing'
「良い女」= 'attractive woman'
Literally, 'Even viewed from the same sex, she's an attractive woman, right?' More naturally, 'Even a girl's gotta admit she's hot, right?'
気をつけてください (ki wo tsukete kudasai) on its own just means " please take care". If you want to specify what you should take care of then that thing is marked with に (ni).
So 体に気をつけてください (karada ni ki wo tsukete kudasai) is literally "take care of your body", or more naturally just "look after yourself".
But the phrase can be used ...
In this example, 描いていた is modifying a noun phrase 忘れていたこと. That is, there are two nested relative clauses.
something I have forgotten, which I have drawn
something I have drawn and then forgotten
The former is still a bit difficult to understand without the full context, but this is the literal translation. If you're ...
This sentence seems to be from this kanbun Buddhist sutra. 拈得す seems to be a rare word, but from its kanji (拈 = 撚 = pinch/pick/take; 得 = obtain), I think it means something like "to pick out" or "to pick and obtain". せん is a form of す ("to do") followed by ん for inference. This せん translates to するだろう(か) in modern Japanese.
Catching the ...
願わくば: "Hopefully, ..." see: What conjugation of 願う is 願わくば, and what does it mean here?
このまま: "like this"; "as it is now"; "at this rate"
穏やかなまま: "the calm/peaceful status continues"
とはいかねぇ: = とはいかない, "won't pass as ～", "cannot expect ～", See: Where does the いかない in ～わけにはいかない come from? ...
There are quite a few ways you could go about phrasing this, depending on the nuance/context, but pretty plainly:
(lit. I think he is 23 years old, but I don't know.)
The 思う has to come at the end of the phrase; in your examples, it modifies the 彼, which would mean "he who thinks" or similar.
I believe #1 is incorrect because of the verb 帰る.
When you describe someone else's movement with the verb 帰る, it feels as though they are moving away from you. So, in the first sentence, it sounds like, at the very least, you are not in your parents' home country at the time, and thus going to pick them up at the airport would be strange.
I believe that if ...