13

This is either a typo or a "reado". Trying to reconstruct the original sentence from your rōmaji version, I'm guessing it is 茂作の顔に息をフーッと吹きかけた フーッと is listed in some dictionaries (e.g. WWWJDIC) ふーっと フーッと (adv,on-mim) with a whiff; with a puff The ッ is small (compare ッ with ツ) and is geminating the following "t" sound. The romanization of the ...


12

I'm Japanese native speaker. In my opinion, little "っ" at the end of sentence is not pronounced at all. However, it often indicates "small" (not so serious) emotions of speaker, I'll show you some example, comparing with other two expressions for writing: 01. ふざけんなよっ 02. ふざけんなよ… 03. ふざけるなよ! (All sentences mean "Don't be silly") As you see, first sentence is ...


9

I assume that you are asking whether native speakers can detect, as a child, whether a vowel is long (マーナ) or short (マナ). The answer is yes, infants can detect it by age 9.5 months according to the paper by Sato, Sogabe, Mazuka, "Discrimination of phonemic vowel length by Japanese infants" American Psychological Association, 2009


8

The standard form is おもしろくて仕方ない, where おもしろくて is used as an adjective (not adverb) in the て-form for connecting predicates. (て-form adjective) + 仕方ない or (たい-form verb in て-form) + 仕方ない is a common phrase that means “It's so (adjective)” or “I really want to (verb)”. The nuance of this 仕方ない is “I can't stand it”, but it's not to be taken literally, ...


7

Wouldn't っ normally require the first onyomi to have a tsu ending? No. This small っ is unrelated to big つ in most cases. This letter is used as gemination (促音【そくおん】) marker that you should double the next consonant*1. One source of geminate consonants is kanji that had final consonant accommodated to Japanese pronunciation*2 e.g. 合 kap + 戦 sen → 合戦 kassen, ...


7

Short summary: Heian-period Japanese acquired new sounds, including a syllable-final -t, a geminated tt, and other geminated consonants. The つ kana, originally tu, was a natural match to write the new -t, which led to its use in tt, and from that it slowly became the symbol for gemination in general. Long answer: Nara-period Old Japanese had no long ...


7

It's 'うっさい' in this context and it's a colloquial style of 'うるさい'.


6

It is exactly as you stated. Using 「Word + っぽい」 over 「Word + ぽい」 is actually a "recent" phonetic trend in the history of the language. The trend is only about 100-plus years old. If you read novels from Meiji Era (1868 - 1912), you will notice the coexistence of both forms. 「~~くって」 is the colloquial form of 「~~くて」 and it is very common in our spoken ...


6

Despite how it looks, っ doesn't only double the consonant "t" but is an all-around geminator used with most of Japanese consonants. See the Wikipedia article. And for the last part 「っけ」, this page will be helpful. ProTip™: Although Wikipedia says you can't use っ with some consonants, the younger generation seems have acquired many untraditional geminations ...


5

You're probably be confusing つ and っ. In other words, it's not さつき you're seeing, but さっき. The small っ is not, however, silent: it creates a slight pause between さ and き, meaning words like さっき and さき, or 活気 (かっき) and 下記 (かき) are not homophones.


5

Even if you read 6分 as ろくふん, it's ok. But ろっぷん is easier to pronounce and much more common. It's the same when it's used like 5.6分, which is usually ごーてんろっぷん.


4

AFAIK cch => tch is the only exception defined in the Hepburn romanization system and its variants (such as パスポート式). All the other 促音 (っ) are expressed by repeating the same consonant. Specifically, I'm not aware of any romanization standard which uses dj. So if you want to strictly obey the rule, バッジ would be rendered as bajji even in the Hepburn system ...


4

This is why you shouldn't rely on romanization while learning Japanese phonology. Looking through the lens of romaji, っ and ん may certainly seem to do more or less the same thing: きっさ kissa, はっぱ happa, あんな anna, and ぐんま gumma (the last one may vary according to the practice). This is because romaji aims to make Japanese pronunciation friendly to those who ...


3

There's a page here on the 9 different changes that can occur in Japanese when words or syllables are joined. https://jn1et.com/hennonngennshou/ The insertion of a つ is 促音化 sokuonka (gemination in English). The general rules are relatively straightforward for most two on-yomi compounds. First character reading ends in tsu followed by k, s or t -> tsu ...


3

Similar to what broccoli forest shared, "た-form + っけ" is a grammar structure that is used for confirmation. In English, it is similar to "~, right?". For example, you met a few people at a party but even after the introductions, there was a name that was hard to catch. In that case, you can use "お名前は何とおっしゃいましたっけ。" to prompt the person to tell you his/her ...


3

Yes, it happens word-internally in Japanese, but it's quite rare. As you probably know, Old Japanese had neither geminate consonants nor long vowels (as far as the best contemporary reconstructions can determine). Pretty much all the geminate consonants in today's Japanese can be traced to (i) more or less well-understood series of changes like the one that ...


2

First, it is common in informal spoken Japanese for syllables to be dropped, shortened, lengthened or changed in some way. In your example, you are correct in saying that 降りよっか is an informal, colloquial version of 降りようか. You might have noticed other 'slang' ways of saying things, such as 寒っ!instead of 寒い! So it's not unusual to see syllables changed in ...


2

(Seems like we're not getting anything more specific, so I'll format my comments as an answer for ease of future reference.) The electronic edition of the Kokugo Dajiten has it like this: 接頭語「ま」の下に促音の挿入された形, So the standard view isn't that it was makoto > maQ-; but rather a simple ma-, to which -Q- was later tacked on. And indeed, of the words you've ...


2

The name of this phenomenon is called "gemination," and it is a specific case of a larger phenomenon that happens in many languages called "sandhi" (after some research, there appears to be a Japanese term for this as well, known as 連{れん}音{おん}). As for why it doesn't happen in 加湿器, I actually am not 100% sure myself, but I would guess it's because Japanese ...


2

I wouldn't worry too much about it, the more you listen to Japanese the more it will naturally come to you. In any case, Long vowels are not something you'll be struggling with in the long run, eventually it will become natural, trying to force it often lead to awkward situation. Just let the sounds come out a tiny bit longer when pronouncing long vowels. ...


2

You're describing what's known as sandhi, specifically rendaku and gemination. It happens a bunch in Japanese, but the rules are notoriously complex. For example it's unclear to me why 学祭{がくさい} couldn't be がっさい. You can read about it some more here.


2

I believe the name for this process is rendaku. More here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rendaku


2

The "small tsu" ッ is not pronounced tsu, but rather represents gemination. The rule of thumb is that a final D gets transliterated as ッド (and a final T as ット) bed → ベッド pad → パッド good → グッド god → ゴッド As you probably learned, this is part of a set of rules of thumb, which deal with final consonants in transliteration, since (except for ン) there are no kana ...


1

For the older vocabulary of Japanese, we have native "Yamato" terms and borrowed Sino-Japanese terms. For these, gemination as spelled with the small-tsu っ historically only happened with voiceless obstruents. The analogue for geminate voiced obstruents in Japanese was prenasalization, which we do see -- although it is realized as //ɴ// + [following ...


1

「っ」 or 「小さい『つ』」 is used to geminate (or lengthen) the following consonant, basically meaning it is pronounced about twice as long as normal. It's traditionally only used before plosives and fricatives, and the use of 「っ」 for this function evolved from the 「つ」 ending on many on'yomi (Chinese readings) of kanji, since it frequently gets "eaten up" by the ...


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