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18

「コ」 is short for 「コーン」 ("corn") here. This type of shortening is very common in Japanese when the word would get too long without it..


16

西瓜(すいか)is a Japanese word, borrowed from the Chinese. It is not known exactly when watermelons arrived in Japan, though it was most likely after the Muromachi period (1333-1573 CE). Words which are native to Japan, borrowed from China, or borrowed a long time ago tend to be written in Kanji and Hiragana. Incidentally, 「西」means west and 「瓜」means melon or ...


15

This depends on the type of the words. As for easy and common words, such as 桜, 犬, 蚊, they are usually written in kanji. These are written in katakana only in biological contexts. 常用漢字表 generally tells us what is considered easy and standard in modern Japanese. If you wrote "東京はサクラがきれいです" or "イヌを飼いたいと思う", that would look unnatural. Relatively difficult ...


13

If explained within the framework of Tinbergen's four questions: (don't take it much seriously) The proximate explanation is, because it's a convention in the biological society. In academic field, every creature's name is written in katakana when it refers to a equivalent of a scientific name. It once was even required by law (though it didn't state ...


12

Yes, there is the more broad term 鯨肉 (げいにくor くじらにく). However, because this term usually refers to whale meat, イルカ肉 is more common to distinguish between the two. Also, I should mention that the likelihood of you ever having the chance to eat dolphin meat nowadays is very slim, unless you travel to Wakayama prefecture perhaps. In the past, in some areas, ...


12

There is a clear difference (no pun intended) between 日本酒 and 清酒. The clue is in the kanji 「清」 = "clear". Technically speaking, 清酒 is one of the two main types of 日本酒 --- 1) 清酒 and 2) にごり[酒]{ざけ}. The former is refined and colorless and the latter, unrefined and cloudy. Informally, however, quite a few native speakers use 日本酒 and 清酒 fairly interchangeably.


12

「かけ」 vs. 「つけ」 Those are two of the more common serving styles of udon. 「かけ」 comes in one (large) bowl with both the broth and noodles in it. With 「つけ」, the noodles and broth are served separately for you to do your "dipping and dunking". You get the noodles in a dish or shallow bamboo basket and the broth in a small bowl/cup. That bamboo basket is ...


12

As a fact-based answer, there is nothing much to say besides that コ here stands for コーン (corn). However, I'm pretty sure that the exact word form バタコチーズライス is chosen because it makes a reference to two major characters in the famous children manga/anime series アンパンマン, namely バタコ (a female baker) and チーズ (dog). (from the left: チーズ, バタコ, ジャムおじさん)


11

It is a "rice ball", usually with some kind of meat inside and wrapped in seaweed (similar to sushi). Unlike sushi though, which you hold and eat with chopsticks, an onigiri is made to hold in the hand. The o- is an honorific prefix. It is used to give respect to an object or person, and is done with several choice words (including o-sushi). This ...


10

In terms of the “substances” they could refer to, ミルク includes 牛乳, plus all the other examples that are given, like baby formula, creamer, and even semen (when used as sexual innuendo). To keep it simple, let’s just say the “substance” we want to refer to is 牛乳. As long as it is clear in the context that you mean 牛乳, it isn’t technically wrong to use ミルク in ...


10

「[割]{わ}る」 here means "to dilute". See meaning #II-4 in http://kotobank.jp/jeword/%E5%89%B2%E3%82%8B?dic=pje3&oid=SPJE04759100 「[泡盛]{あわもり}のコーヒー割り」 = "awamori diluted with coffee" Other common terms containing 「割り」: ウイスキーのソーダ割り/[水]{みず}割り [焼酎]{しょうちゅう}のウーロン[茶]{ちゃ}割り


9

I can get into this answer a bit because I'm lactose intolerant, or as it is called in Japanese, 乳糖{にゅうとう}不{ふ}耐症{たいしょう}. Despite the fact that genetically, all Japanese should most likely also all be lactose intolerant, outside of medical practitioners, most people have never heard the term, and so usually it's easier to just say I have a milk allergy (牛乳{...


9

Your hypothesis that カツ stems from cutlet seems correct. According to kotobank, カツ is the shortened form of カツレツ, i.e. cutlet. See here for its culinary history.


9

That is 薬研{やげん} in Japanese. By the way, I've heard of 薬研堀{やげんぼり} but never known 薬研 itself.


9

Before cooking rice, many people wash the rice by "grinding" (hence 研ぐ) the individual grains against one another under flowing water until the water runs more or less clear. (In the olden days the purpose of the grinding was to remove the hull (糠【ぬか】).) In the process of this, together with rest of the hulls and dust, minerals and starch are also removed. ...


9

Here are examples of what most people (including myself, a native speaker) actually say: チーズバーガー、1つ。 One cheese burger. ウーロン茶、L。 Oolong tea, L. 以上で。 That's it. Suica/クレジットカードで。 With Suica (electronic money)/credit card. I usually do not even say ありがとう(ございます), so your observation in Japan was correct. That said, if you feel you took more time than usual as ...


9

気楽な corresponds to 気が楽 and describes feeling at ease or relaxed, a semi-literal translation of the latter might be "ease of mind". "Easy" itself has several meanings in English, and "easy to drink" would not necessarily be interpreted as meaning the opposite of "technically difficult to drink". In any case, translating 気楽なお酒 as an "easy drink" would be ...


8

丁寧 (ていねい ) is an "na-adjective/adverb" with two meanings, (1) polite (as you know) and (2) careful or conscientous. The second meaning can apply to the way something is made, prepared or wrapped. I imagine your friend was referring to the way the ramen was made but for food (in general) there could be situations when any one of those three could apply. ...


8

おてもと does refer to chopsticks but it is not "another word for chopsticks." That is, you won't say おてもとを取ってください nor 新しいおてもとを買ってこようかな. According to the source article that Chocolate's Wikipedia article mentions, the word came from a reference to "お手もと箸" (chopsticks for your personal use) in contrast to "お取り箸", which refers to chopsticks for shared dishes that ...


8

Compare the results of Google image search: 惣菜 vs. おかず. 惣菜 and おかず refer to almost the same category of foods, but 総菜/惣菜 typically means prepared food sold in stores. Supermarkets always have お惣菜コーナー (sozai section). Foods that do not spoil rapidly, like breads or snacks, are not considered 惣菜. Dishes prepared at home are usually called おかず, not 惣菜 (at ...


8

Since these come in 'bags' rather than in cups, you can use the 袋{ふくろ} counter. インスタントラーメン一袋{ひとふくろ}


8

So 肉{にく} refers to meat in general. It is typically used with an animal to form a particular kind of meat: 牛肉{ぎゅうにく}: Beef 豚肉{ぶたにく}: Pork 鶏肉{とりにく}: Chicken It can also be used to describe the appearance/cut, for example in 挽{ひ}き肉{にく}, minced meat. You talk about カツ: This word does not describe pork meat in general but rather a particular cut of pork meat,...


8

「デスクランプのあるテーブルを挟んで座る」(Sitting face to face at a table/desk with a desk light on it) reminds us of 警察の取り調べ室 (police interrogation room), which is often depicted in fiction like this: And 取り調べ室 often conjures up a stereotyped image of serving かつ丼 to the suspect: This is because this situation is (or rather, used to be) often seen in police dramas on TV. In ...


8

It resembles a food known as ワッフルドッグ, チーズワッフル, or 原宿ドッグ. As the name suggests, its ingredient is typically cheese.


8

grammarword-choicesyntaxmeaning 1) Why な is used after スパイシー when Japanese language imports a word from a foreign language, it almost always receives and encapsulates it as a noun regardless what the word's original function was in its source language. From there, the native speakers will attach ~な to use it as if it were an adjective. This happens because,...


7

ご飯{はん} is the 美化語{びかご} version of 飯{めし}, i.e. a beautified version. Usually 美化語 has the form of お/ご+the unbeautified version, but ご飯 is an exception. Another exception is 腹{はら}→おなか, belly. はん and なか do not exist by themselves (with those meanings). Please remember that not all お/ご+noun are 美化語, some are 尊敬語{そんけいご}, respectful language. E.g. お車{くるま}, car. ...


7

There is no convenient rule you can use. The different pronunciations come from the different origins of the words. There are basically three kinds of words that are written in kanji in Japanese. 和語 were developed in Japan, 訓読み words are likely to be 和語 漢語 originated in China, 音読み words are likely to be 漢語 There are also combinations of 和語 and 漢語, and ...


7

Those are most commonly called 「[屋台村]{やたいむら}」, followed probably by 「[屋台街]{やたいがい}」, but I recommend that you stick with the former because the latter can also refer to a regular street lined with food stalls. There is one named 「かごっまふるさと屋台村」 in Kagoshima if that is the one you got drunk at last night. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=keCZt91Xj1g The word 「[...


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