35

Let's dive into this etymology. (My reference, unless otherwise stated, is Shogakukan's 国語大辞典. I've got a dead-tree copy, and there's also a decent online version available for free via Kotobank. Note that Kotobank's layout is a bit confusing for terms spelled with kanji that have multiple readings.) Sense development さようなら Listed here as first ...


16

I have long enjoyed Shogakukan's Kokugo Dai Jiten (KDJ) for its etymologies -- it's one of the few monolingual Japanese dictionaries to include etymologies for its terms. This post relies on their entry for 松明, available here at Kotobank. Derivation of the term たいまつ The たいまつ reading is first cited to the 宇津保【うつぼ】物語【ものがたり】, dated to around 999. Unfortunately,...


15

Not a real answer, but some facts to think about. According to the 日本国語大辞典, the word 場所 is attested in Japanese since the 17th century, and the first appearance ever (the 甲陽軍鑑 of 1616) actually reads it as ばところ (or probably ばどころ, I don't know how strict the denotation of 濁点 was in that particular source)! Only in a jōruri text 最明寺殿百人上臈 (1699) we find ばしょ (...


12

I agree with @MichaelChirico and @Earthliŋ♦. Let me add a different viewpoint. To say goodbye we often use many variant versions of "sayonara" such as: じゃーね それじゃーね それならね さらば These have basically the same original meaning of "さようなら". Direct meaning is "Since that is the case, (let's call it a day)" or something like that. I think it's also similar to "then"...


12

生 with a reading of ふ is uncommon, but it's not only in 芝生【しばふ】. It was used in Old Japanese as a standalone noun, with a general sense of "place with lush greenery". Given the sense and reading, I suspect it might be connected somehow to the verb forms 生【は】える ("to grow", intransitive) and 生【は】やす ("to grow something, to make ...


11

This is simply because 'ears are on the edge of your face'. The edge of a coin was also called 耳 in the past, and 耳を揃える is still commonly used as an idiom. 語源由来辞典 - 耳を揃える 「耳」は頭部の中心から端に位置することから、「パンの耳」と言うように「縁」を意味する。 なぜパンの端を耳というのか? そもそも日本人は、モノの端の部分を耳と表すことが多く、これはパンに限っての話ではない。例えば、布や紙の端の部分も耳と言い表すことがある。これらに共通しているのは平面的な物体という点だ。日本人は平面的なものの端の部分を耳と呼ぶのである。 (By the ...


10

I also feel that only 様【よう】 could somehow be viewed as "ultimately from Chinese", but the other parts, namely 然【さ】 (now usually written with ateji 左) and なら, are of Japanese origin. Thus it would seem that the phrase さようなら is "ultimately Japanese".


9

Names that end in "kichi" (written 吉 in kanji, meaning "good fortune") have an "old-fashioned men's name" feel to them. It's a name ending that gives the impression that the person is probably an older guy. And perhaps from a rural area (though I'm less certain of that.) Some examples of names that real people have had include 大吉 - Daikichi 春吉 - Harukichi ...


9

Based on the hint from @wip, I started to research and found a wonderful discussion. They have shared so many reliable sources but everything is Japanese and it's very very long so I'll pick up points relating to this question. About kanji variation. First of all, there were hundreds of variations of kanji of coffee (as a form of ateji) at least in Japan. ...


9

If you look 迷子 up in a monolingual dictionary, such as 大辞林 or 大辞泉 for example, it should include a note like まよいごの音変化 (sound change from mayoigo). So yes, it was originally まよいご and changed over time.


9

かぶり is an archaic word, and it's used almost exclusively in this idiom in modern Japanese. It's probably an example of a fossil word (an obsolete word that remains only in a certain idiom). かぶりをふる is a literary fixed phrase that only means "to deny/reject", and you cannot put another modifier like 横に in between. When the physical motion is ...


7

This phenomenon is called [対流]{たいりゅう} (convection), which is a technical term but understood by most adults. ジャンピング is a little-known alternative name used by black tea fans. The loanword is used simply because this is important only in the context of black tea. Japanese teas are traditionally steeped at a much lower temperature range (60-90 °C), and the ...


6

Expanding on kandyman's answer. Origins of mukimuki: probably not German According to the Shogakukan Kokugo Dai Jiten (KDJ) entry here, the first cited textual instance of a word mukimuki is way back in the 700s in the Man'yōshū poetry anthology. This is much older than the German word Muskel ("muscle"), of which Mucki is a derivation. Per the Herkunft ("...


6

It's from 良し, which is the dictionary form of 良い ("good") in classical Japanese. It's just like saying "Good" or "Okay" before making a decision in English. よし is now considered a lexicalized interjection, but 良し is still used in modern Japanese in the sense of "excellent".


6

There's a number of words in Japanese that come from English, but not via the route expected. I suspect that バスター might be one such word. Poking around in Kotobank's page for バスター, we see that this is probably the same word that arose from baseball, as a corruption or shift from the original English phrase bastard bunt, in reference to a play where the ...


6

There’s no really “correct” or “incorrect” when it comes to ateji like 明日{あした} or 大人{おとな}, you just have to pick something or least bad. With jukujikun (kanji picked purely for meaning and not readings) it’s even worse since you may have not enough kana for the kanji. Some examples from Wikipedia: kera (啄木鳥, woodpecker), gumi (胡頽子, silver berry/oleaster), ...


5

Yes オーション is just one of the product names for flour sold by Nisshin. Information is limited because it's not officially for retail. This site seems to have lots of official information about professional-use flours sold by Nisshin, but unfortunately only experts and restaurant owners are allowed to access. Still, judging from this search result, I think it'...


5

Yes, according to Wikipedia, 幼稚園 is a direct translation from German "Kindergarten". 幼稚園 幼稚園という語は、彼の作った学校の名前である Kindergarten(フレーベルの造語、「子供達の庭」、「子供の国」の意)を翻訳してできた。 キンダー・ガルテンの訳語として「幼稚園」を最初に名乗ったのが、1876年(明治9年)に開園した東京女子師範学校附属幼稚園で、現在もお茶の水女子大学附属幼稚園として存続し、これが日本で最古の幼稚園とされる。 Related: Is 人孔 from English? Calque


5

I'd like to address your questions directly. I was reading about Wasei-kango, and am bemused why Japanese-made Chinese words is translated as 和製漢語. Why not 日本製漢語? Stylistically speaking, there is a preference for four-character compounds. There is a very long history of four-character compounds, deriving from stylistic practices developed long ago in ...


5

I don't know the "authoritative definition", but according to Japanese Wikipedia, 重箱/湯桶 words are not kango: 「雑木」を「ぞうき」と読むような重箱読みや、「夕刊」を「ゆうかん」と読むような湯桶読みは、和語と漢語を複合させた混種語(和漢混淆語)であり、漢語の範疇ではない。 I think this explanation is natural. They are hybrid words (混種語). Hybrids are hybrids, and you should not force them into the classic three categories. ケーキ屋: ...


5

You can actually write it in both ways, and they will mean slightly different things. 過ち will imply error in moral judgement. 誤ち will imply accidental mistakes. So it's better to write 過去の過ちを責めてはいけない rather than 過去の誤ちを責めてはいけない because in this case, you are not talking about accidental mistakes. Similary, it's better to write 計算を誤った than 計算を過った.


4

There are a few different elements, so I'll try to break them down for you. The first sentence 携帯あんだろ ? is a very casual/colloquial way of saying 携帯(が)あるんだろう? In other words, they are asking (semi-rhetorically) whether they have their phone. As for their second sentence, 通じる is a verb which can mean 'communicate' or 'get through' (amongst others), ...


4

In Japanese, phonetic equivalence is generally a very poor predictor of common etymology. Japanese is well known as having a preponderance of homophones, mostly due to the accretion of possible readings for each kanji which has developed over the centuries. But even among wago (和語), verbs ending in 'eru' are extremely common. Still, it is always worth ...


4

I researched and found some words which have similar meaning with these samples. 口ずから (by one's own mouth) 足ずから (by one's own feet) 心ずから (by one's own heart/will) As a different meaning, ず+から seems to lead a meaning of relationship. 隣ずから (with relationship of next to each other) いとこずから (with relationship of cousins) In my experience, these words I shared ...


4

No, there is no connection between the words. The phonetic sharing of 'ya', 'ku' and 'za' is just a coincidence. The word ヤクザ is thought to have derived from the scoring system of gambling games (see this explanation), with the numbers 8, 9, 3 (= ya, ku, za) being an unwanted or useless combination. This is thought to be the origin of the name of the ...


4

こき使う is a compound verb made of 扱く and 使う. 扱く can be read both as こく and しごく (こく is less common), but they originally mean roughly the same thing, "to rub/scrub", and by extension, "to work someone hard". From Compound Verb Lexicon: I don't know the story, but こき使う only means "to work someone hard". Do you understand 人 in this ...


4

I don't think so many adverbs with ず in Japanese adverbs but I find some examples of Japanese adverbs with "ず" at the end of a word are; Group A: ず means negative conjugation あいかわらず (as not changed) あしからず (do not treat it as bad thing) おもいがけず (as not supposed) おもわず (as not supposed) Group B: ず is a part of Mimetic word うずうず (itchy) ぐずぐず (tardily) ...


4

First you need a little background on old Japanese currency. Back in the Edo period, a 文{もん} was the lowest denominator of currency. A 貫{かん} is a weight measurement (3.75 kg), but is also the weight of 1000 文, which were stringed together to make 10 rolls of 100 coins and those rolls themselves would be used in payment. 九百 comes from 九百文, which is 100 文 ...


4

Was it an honorific form in the past Yes. According to this 古語辞典: まゐ・る 【参る】 [二]他動詞ラ行四段活用 ④ なさる。おやりになる。▽「す」の尊敬語。 出典 源氏物語 若紫 「今宵(こよひ)はなほ静かに加持(かぢ)などまゐりて」 [訳] 今晩はやはり静かに加持などをなさって。


4

Derivation Theory 1: Compound This term is long enough that it's pretty certain it's a compound. Given that the verb's meaning describes facing a particular direction, I think your intuition may be correct that this is うつ ("?") + 向【む】く ("to face a particular direction"). Origins of うつ Regarding quite what this うつ might be, I haven't ...


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