4

The basic structure of this sentence is: 日本刀と他の刀との違いはXです。 The difference between Japanese swords and other swords is (in) X. The "is" in the translation simply corresponds to the copula です at the end of the original sentence. There is no need to change it to something else like "could be". The "X" part consists of two nested ...


2

I would parse it this way: The difference between Japanese swords and other swords is this: How much do they care about "how beautiful are the ripples and iron?"? And since this way there are essentially two implicit questions in this phrase it makes sense that there are two か.


2

I think the で is indicating the method/way the 5 levels are determined. From 大辞泉 6 動作・作用の手段・方法・材料などを表す。…を使って。「電話で連絡する」「テレビで知ったニュース」「紙で作った飛行機」 「この御馬―宇治河のまっさき渡し候ふべし」〈平家・九〉 The examples don't have an embedded question but, here's some with questions: 「愛されるか」ではなく「愛することができるか」で男性を選ぶ 「GDP」をどこまで説明できるかで判明する 【クイズ】何問正解できるかで「あなたの犬好き度」がバレる. I think replacing で with の ...


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