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Can 何か be a question word? 何か here is not a question word. (「何 + か」 can be a question word in different structures.) [何]{なに}か here means "something". 「~か何か」 = "~~ or something similar" "~~ or something like that" (The か in 親類か is a parallel marker / 並立助詞.) implying that the speaker suspects the nighthawk isn't the kin of a frog, but something else ...


4

Grammatically speaking, か in Sentence 1 and か in Sentence 2 are a bit different. In Sentence 1, か is simply like "or". In this case, the second か is optional, but is usually omitted in modern Japanese. リンゴかバナナ(か)を買う。 私か佐藤さん(か)が行きます。 In Sentence 2, the two か's are forming two embedded questions placed in parallel. In this case, か cannot be ...


2

I think the で is indicating the method/way the 5 levels are determined. From 大辞泉 6 動作・作用の手段・方法・材料などを表す。…を使って。「電話で連絡する」「テレビで知ったニュース」「紙で作った飛行機」 「この御馬―宇治河のまっさき渡し候ふべし」〈平家・九〉 The examples don't have an embedded question but, here's some with questions: 「愛されるか」ではなく「愛することができるか」で男性を選ぶ 「GDP」をどこまで説明できるかで判明する 【クイズ】何問正解できるかで「あなたの犬好き度」がバレる. I think replacing で with の ...


2

All of the forms that you have listed have the same effective meaning and are interchangeable, so long as they follow the proper context. Cross-searching these examples on Weblio, they are pretty much all listed as synonyms, with some seemingly trivial usage differences that I do not think will actually dissuade most speakers from using them interchangeably. ...


1

I know the former is more literal, but I find it a bit difficult to understand. The latter is far easier to understand, but it has completely lost the nuance of "presuppose". Your second attempt looks a bit misleading because of the use of は and the comma after 部品. It almost looks like "the 部品 has to know which upper system it is embedded in". Use が and no ...


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