7

Both are grammatical, and it's a matter of preference to a certain degree. Generally speaking, が/を at the end of an embedded question before a verb is usually omitted unless you want to emphasize the embedded question. リンゴマークがあるか(を)確認します。 彼女がどこにいるか(が)分かりません。 ハートマークではなくリンゴマークがあるかを確認してください。 どうやるのかではなく、なぜやるのかが分かりません。 What I don't understand is why ...


5

Can 何か be a question word? 何か here is not a question word. (「何 + か」 can be a question word in different structures.) [何]{なに}か here means "something". 「~か何か」 = "~~ or something similar" "~~ or something like that" (The か in 親類か is a parallel marker / 並立助詞.) implying that the speaker suspects the nighthawk isn't the kin of a frog, but something else ...


4

Grammatically speaking, か in Sentence 1 and か in Sentence 2 are a bit different. In Sentence 1, か is simply like "or". In this case, the second か is optional, but is usually omitted in modern Japanese. リンゴかバナナ(か)を買う。 私か佐藤さん(か)が行きます。 In Sentence 2, the two か's are forming two embedded questions placed in parallel. In this case, か cannot be ...


4

The basic structure of this sentence is: 日本刀と他の刀との違いはXです。 The difference between Japanese swords and other swords is (in) X. The "is" in the translation simply corresponds to the copula です at the end of the original sentence. There is no need to change it to something else like "could be". The "X" part consists of two nested ...


2

I would parse it this way: The difference between Japanese swords and other swords is this: How much do they care about "how beautiful are the ripples and iron?"? And since this way there are essentially two implicit questions in this phrase it makes sense that there are two か.


2

I think the で is indicating the method/way the 5 levels are determined. From 大辞泉 6 動作・作用の手段・方法・材料などを表す。…を使って。「電話で連絡する」「テレビで知ったニュース」「紙で作った飛行機」 「この御馬―宇治河のまっさき渡し候ふべし」〈平家・九〉 The examples don't have an embedded question but, here's some with questions: 「愛されるか」ではなく「愛することができるか」で男性を選ぶ 「GDP」をどこまで説明できるかで判明する 【クイズ】何問正解できるかで「あなたの犬好き度」がバレる. I think replacing で with の ...


2

All of the forms that you have listed have the same effective meaning and are interchangeable, so long as they follow the proper context. Cross-searching these examples on Weblio, they are pretty much all listed as synonyms, with some seemingly trivial usage differences that I do not think will actually dissuade most speakers from using them interchangeably. ...


2

It looks as though you have a valid understanding of the usage. 「のか」, in this context, does not form a "real" or "serious" question. It is, instead, used to express the speaker's own doubt regarding how to pinpointedly label the girl's (unique type of) kindness by enumerating three possibilities (plain kindness, indifference and thickheadedness). Also, ...


1

I know the former is more literal, but I find it a bit difficult to understand. The latter is far easier to understand, but it has completely lost the nuance of "presuppose". Your second attempt looks a bit misleading because of the use of は and the comma after 部品. It almost looks like "the 部品 has to know which upper system it is embedded in". Use が and no ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible