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14

Am I going in the right direction with this interpretation? You got it, friend! 大辞林曰く、 【 】の中【なか】の漢字【かんじ】が「常用【じょうよう】漢字【かんじ】表【ひょう】」にないものには「 ▼ 」、その漢字が「常用漢字表」にはあるが見出【みだ】しに相当【そうとう】する音訓【おんくん】が示【しめ】されていないものには「 ▽ 」を漢字の右肩【みぎかた】に付【ふ】した。 If a given kanji isn't part of the 常用漢字 list, it'll be marked with a ▼. If it is part of the 常用漢字 list but uses a non-standard ...


13

エラー is a very common word and I don't think you need to avoid it in IT contexts. That said, some errors can be safely translated using non-katakana words. 不正 (na-adjective) is commonly used in the sense of "invalid" or "illegal". Occasionally it's also used for unexpected run-time errors/malfunctions. 不正な構文です。 不正なパラメータでコンストラクタが呼び出されました。 HTTP 400 ...


12

I think that the お and ご prefixes are included when the resulting word has been lexicalized and is no longer simply a combination of the prefix and the bare word. For example, I see entries for おやすみ, おにぎり and ごはん in 大辞林. I think these words were originally combinations of お and ご with 休み, 握り, and 飯(はん), but the combinations became words in their own right, ...


12

It is archaic form of writing called 歴史的仮名遣い. It was not until November 16, 1946 that Japan began using modern writing form(現代仮名遣い). For that reason 歴史的仮名遣い was widely used those days, and today in Japan you can sometimes see literature written then. That is why modern dictionaries have the old spelling. "ー" is used to show the part is written in the same ...


12

動{どう}ラ下二{しもに}, an abbreviation of 動詞{どうし}、ラ行{ぎょう}下二段{しもにだん}活用{かつよう}. That is, a Classical Japanese (文語{ぶんこ}) verb of the “lower bigrade” conjugation, with a root ending in -r. To really understand what this means you need to spend some time learning Classical Japanese grammar. Many dictionaries have an appendix or something explaining the concepts, and it ...


12

BCCWJ is a corpus of written Japanese and you can search it here. Type the word in the search box and you can see the published year of the texts in which the word was used. However, it focuses on contemporary Japanese and doesn't include texts before 1971. CHJ is a corpus of written Japanese from Nara period to Taisho period (~1925). However, you have to ...


9

As mentioned by Earthliŋ, these are indices in the Classic Nelson kanji dictionary. A quick search tells us that N5114 corresponds to the index N6610 in the New Nelson dictionary. Here's an image from my New Nelson dictionary. N5116 presumably corresponds to N6612 then. When I look for pages that mention this, it looks like they're using outdated versions ...


9

I don't exactly know what you mean by "translations", but kanji have different readings, on'yomi readings (which are adapted from the original Chinese) and kun'yomi readings (which have nothing to do with the Chinese reading, but map a native Japanese word to a kanji). To distinguish the "type" (on'yomi vs. kun'yomi) of these readings, the on'yomi is ...


9

The さま in these definitions is none other than 様. 様 in this sense is synonymous with 有【あり】様 or 様子, meaning "state, circumstances, situation, appearance, condition". So the definition of 細やか you provided would translate as "shape/scope not being grandiose or exaggerated, but being (a) reserved/moderate/conservative (state)".


9

Well, this is the first time I've heard of SKIP. But according to this wiki article, I think it is a mistake. 古 has 5 strokes and 月 has 4, so the SKIP for 胡 should be 1-5-4. The stroke order listed in the link given by jkerian in the comment can also confirm this.


9

青空文庫 is a library of public-domain literary works, and it mainly consists of novels written between 1870 and 1950. I often use this full-text search to check how a certain word was used around the Meiji – middle Showa era.


8

There is certainly some overlap, but there is a difference. In general, 誤解 is to misunderstand, whereas 勘違い is often about misreading or misremembering. So 誤解 can sometimes be deeply entangled and hard to fix, while many 勘違い are simple “Oops!” type mistakes that are obvious in hindsight. The “misremembering” kind of 勘違い is never called a 誤解. For example, ...


8

For this sort of question, you should check the 凡例 of the dictionary. The Wisdom E-J defines 話 and 書 like this:  〔話〕   (話し言葉(spoken))  〔書〕   (書き言葉(written)) The Wisdom J-E defines them like this:  〔話〕   口語  〔書〕   改まった語,文語 But I think the abbreviations must still come from 話し言葉 and 書き言葉, in any case. So in this case, I think 書 is a dictionary-specific ...


8

▼ is for kanji that don't appear at all on the 常用漢字表. ▽ is when the kanji appears on the chart, but the word uses a reading the chart does not include. Their example of 雄叫び marks 叫 this way because the official chart only includes the readings キョウ and さけぶ for that kanji. The 付表 referred to is part of the 常用漢字表 as well (see page 154 of the PDF linked above)...


8

Hiragana are used for native Japanese words, but also very commonly for kanji, even for onyomi. Readings of kanji can be split up into 3 broad types: On'yomi These are readings taken from the Chinese mainland when kanji were imported to Japan. The reason why there are so many is that kanji sometimes took readings of chinese characters from different ...


8

It simply means that it should be replaced by 言, 云 or 謂 in actual usage. The notation is used exclusively in some dictionaries to avoid looking repetitive in giving example phrases/sentences for the entry word. (Of course, one could argue that the use of the same notation over and over looks repetitive, too.)


8

It means or/also. It's commonly seen in Japanese dictionaries in the form of また、そのさま。when talking about suru-verbs (among other things) to describe both the action (verb) and the state (noun). You see similar things in English dictionaries too. The following definition for evil is an example. the condition of being immoral, cruel, or bad, or an act of ...


7

To the best of my knowledge, and the knowledge of the dictionary's creator, the first Japanese-English dictionary is the one published by by James Curtis Hepburn in 1867. Hepburn was a physician and Protestant missionary in Japan, and you may recognize his name from Hepburn Romanization. In the preface to the dictionary, Hepburn notes that he is responsible ...


7

I think that N5116 is a dictionary index for the "Classic Nelson", i.e. The Original Modern Reader's Japanese–English Character Dictionary: Classic Edition by Andrew Nelson, so that N5116 means "character 5116 in the Classic Nelson". The actual kanji 響 seems to be 5114 in this dictionary (i.e. N5114 in the notation used above) and I'm guessing that N5116 is ...


6

yeah it's a word. 食べたい and 食べます are considered forms of 食べる, which is the only one that will have an explicit entry in a dictionary. you're fine. the たい forms are built from the "masu" stem of the verb (Vmasu) by taking off the ます and adding たい. my answer to (1) should answer this too. the たい words are conjugations of verbs such as 食べる. the definition you ...


6

It's just a hyphen to split the word stem from the suffix 家. It's not written that way in normal text, but you do see it in dictionaries or word lists.


6

There does not seem to be an 'official' dictionary. However, there are some dictionaries regarded as more comprehensive than others, and dictionary publishing in Japan remains, to this day, as a highly competitive business. Unlike other languages, Japanese (and Chinese as well) has two main types of dictionaries: Language dictionaries Chinese character ...


6

The dictionaries I have use the following order. (From the publishers 小学館, 三省堂 and 学研.) The usual lexicographic order by gojūon, mostly ignoring whether a kana has (han)dakuten or is a small kana. (Recall the gojūon order means あいうえお かきくけこ さしすせそ たちつてと なにぬねの はひふへほ まみむめも やゆよ らりるれろ わ. You can reconstruct this by memorizing あいうえお and あかさたなはまやらわ. Also see What ...


5

This is simply a notation of the dictionary used. It doesn't say so explicitly on the results page, but the dictionary for the entry you linked is the デイリーコンサイス国語辞典 第三版. An overview of the notation used by this dictionary can be found here. Particularly, it says this about the dash: - 類似の表現の記述が連続する場合,‐と( )を組み合わせて, 下に示すように, 記述を合併して示した.   例 …する‐こと(人) ...


5

Dictionaries usually list abbreviations. 副助 stands for 副助詞 "adverbial particle", i.e. [副助] = [adv. part.]. The suffix 詞 is added to all parts of speech and is omitted in the abbreviations. There are also 副詞 "adverb" and 助詞 "particle" which would be abbreviated [副] and [助].


5

While this answer doesn't readily address the issue of で vs で.る until the end, I believe it is important that the OP approach the subject of kanji rather differently than s/he appears to be doing. Languages are not designed for the ease of non-native speakers to learn. This can be all the more true when it comes to orthography. When coming from a Western ...


4

Looks like you're interested in ですので at the beginning of a sentence? Then yes, that ですので is a polite version of conjunctive だから, meaning "Therefore", "So", etc. The casual equivalent is なので. However there is a controversy as to whether ですので/なので at the beginning of a sentence is correct. It seems most Japanese dictionaries do not explain this kind of ですので/...


4

There is an official document (「異字同訓の漢字の使い分け例」) that covers a number of these. For example: つくる 084 【作る】こしらえる。米を作る。規則を作る。新記録を作る。計画を作る。詩を作る。笑顔を作る。 会社を作る。機会を作る。組織を作る。 【造る】大きなものをこしらえる。醸造する。 船を造る。庭園を造る。宅地を造る。道路を造る。数寄屋造りの家。酒を造る。 【創る*】独創性のあるものを生み出す。 新しい文化を創(作)る。画期的な商品を創(作)り出す。 * 一般的には「創る」の代わりに「作る」と表記しても差し支えないが,事柄の「独創性」を 明確に示したい場合には,「創る」を用いる。 Or ...


4

This should be ぎゅうにゅう meaning "milk", although ミルク is much more common.


4

Unless you're in a situation involving jukuji-kun readings (where the characters are wholly disconnected from their pronunciation), you can tell by knowing the readings of the individual characters: 受: う・ける (among others), keeping in mind that it's an ichidan verb so the verb stem is うけ-, not う- 身: み (among others) So, if you know even that 身 is み, you ...


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