27

It's a contraction of 答えれば. More generally, eba contracts to ya: kotaereba → kotaerya  (答えれば → 答えりゃ) okeba → okya   (おけば →  おきゃ) ieba → iya   (言えば →   言や) nakereba → nakerya  (なければ → なけりゃ) (As you can see, the pattern is easier to see and describe when romanized.)


20

誰探してんの is a contracted form of 誰探してるの, which in turn is a contracted form of 誰(を)探しているの ("Who are you looking for?", notice the progressive form). More generally: ている contracts to てる. (See this chart) /r/ + vowel before a /n/ consonant can turn into ん in casual speech. (Do not confuse this ん as explanatory-の.) Examples: わからない。 → わかんない。 wakaranai → wakan'...


16

There is なのです (often contracted to なんです), which fits the bill. Just like you suspect, it is declarative/emphatic. This なんです is unrelated to 何{なん}です, but rather a combination of な (the inflection of the copula だ, if you like), the nominalizer の plus the "politifier" です. It also exists in non-polite form: なのだ・なんだ. It really appears everywhere, e.g. as a ...


14

救われん is made of 救われる and the archaic suffix ん, which came out of む. む・ん had similar roles to よう・おう today; that is to say, 救われん in modern style would be 救われよう or 救われるだろう. It is not related to the ん that comes out of ぬ, which is a strong or dialectal way of stating a negative. Additionally, as chocolate says in the comments, 祈り信じよ means 'Pray and believe', ...


13

You can add focus particles like は or も to verbs, but in order to do so, you have to split the verb into two parts so that the particle has some place to go. We'll split the verb into its continuative stem (called 連用形 in Japanese) and the verb する. For example:   忘れる   → 忘れ+する   忘れる+も = 忘れもする Or:   忘れない   → 忘れ+しない   忘れない+は = 忘れはしない Your example is a ...


11

First, let me comment on your three examples: です ⇔ であります We discussed です before. According to 大辞林, there are several theories, but we don't know its etymology for sure. This is one of the three theories it lists, though. I've read that でございます may be more likely, but I never read an explanation why, so I won't make that assertion here. じゃない ⇔ ではない ...


11

帝国がってんなら、 It looks like a contracted pronunciation of 帝国がと言うのなら。 ~というのなら → ~ってのなら → ~ってんなら (The particle って can be the colloquial version of という.) I think the sentence literally means: 『帝国が』と言うのなら、 If you mean "The empire (did...)," この旅の間にも on this trip, too 何度か見てきたろ? you've already seen (what it's capable of) several times, haven't you?


10

ニコニコしとれば 悪さは しねえし いつの間にか いねくなっちまうんだ。 This is the same as the following sentence written in the standard Japanese. ニコニコしていれば悪さはしないし、いつの間にかいなくなってしまうんだ。 If you keep smiling, they won't do bad things, and they go away before you notice. The original sentence is not in a particular "dialect", but a typical role language of an old man/lady (aka 老人語). しとる ...


10

It's uttered as a colloquial, casual and exclamatory phrase. It's typically used in response to a situation/stimulation that strikes you suddenly. っ is often added after the stem. 高っ! (Wow,) it's expensive! やば(っ)! (Wow,) this is bad! 痛っ! Ouch! きもちわる(っ)! Gross! In formal settings, you should generally avoid this, but no one would blame you for ...


9

It's lazy polite form. Dropped for ease of use and to add a level of casual feel. Used nationwide. When I worked in bars and a few host clubs this style commonly used in place of normal 敬語 as it is too stiff for young women, who are the majority of our customers. However, we always reverted back to normal 敬語 when an older male, female(ママさん) or couple was ...


9

売{う}ってる is an informal contracted form of 売っている. In the 〜ている construction, いる is a special type of verb called a "subsidiary verb" (or 補助動詞 in Japanese), a verb which serves a grammatical purpose rather than having its literal meaning, and this type of verb very often contracts with 〜て.


9

This paper breifly lists this as a source: 「がる」の語源にはいくつかの可能性があるようだが [...] 日本国語大辞典によると、 「アハレガル、ウレシガル、痛ガル、面白ガルのガルは情をそそられる意から、アガルの約。道心ガル、才子ガル、得意ガルのガルは、ゲ(気)アルの約〔大言海〕」などの紹介がある。 I do not have access to 日本国語大辞典, but it seems it does not support your がある theory, rather suggests that it derives from あがる and/or 気{げ}ある.


8

This is an abbreviated form of 〜てくれない, meaning "to not do 〜 for me". So 貸してくれない means "won't lend me", but phrased as a question like this (likely with a rising intonation) mean "Hey Maruo, won't you lend me your dictionary for a bit?"


7

じゃ is the contraction of では. It's a contraction, because じゃ is one mora (one unit length) and では is two moras long. じゃ is frequently used as contraction of では, especially in じゃない < ではない. As pointed out before by one of our native speakers on this site (@l'électeur), じゃありません is at risk of being overused by learners. Presumably, because the uncontracted では ...


7

It's [一体]{いったい}[何]{なに}を[騒]{さわ}いでいるんだ? or 騒いでいるんですか? "What's the fuss about?" in some regional dialect or the role language for old speakers.


7

売ってる is a contraction of 売っている. The い in ~ている verb endings is often dropped in casual speech.


7

I do not know the origin of the suffix -がる, but I am afraid that your theory is unlikely because the suffix -がる is attached to something different from what a particle が is attached. For example, we say 痛がる, but 痛が is not grammatical.


7

いやあ = No / why いい = say いやあ here is a colloquial pronunciation of [言]{い}えば, which is the conditional form (仮定形) of the verb 言う. いい is [良]{い}い. はやくいやあいいのに means [早]{はや}く[言]{い}えばいいのに。 literally "though it would be good if (she) said soon" → (She) should have said it earlier.


6

The extra あ only comes from lengthening the きゃ and could equally well have been written 行きゃ~. Just in the middle of the sentence it looks better as 行きゃあ. The sound is lengthened, because there is a small break when saying the sentence. For example, in 行きゃいいじゃねぇか Why don't you go? a lengthening wouldn't be natural. I presume if you really want, 行ければ ...


6

ときゃ is a contraction of [とき]{時}は 誰と is "with who" Does this answer your questions?


6

えらかァない is a colloquial, collapsed way of saying えらくはない. えらく(連用形/continuative form of えらい) + は(係助詞/binding particle) + negative ない 「おいらよりマシかぁ、なぁんだ、じゃあえらいなぁ。」 「別にえらかァないよ...」 "Better than me? Well, you're distinguished/great, then." "I'm not particularly distinguished/great..."


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