There are several things to consider in answering your question.
An objective answer to your question would require a direct comparison between the total usage of 後で at two different points in time. This is not a trivial task and it requires more specific information, i.e. exactly which two time points to compare, what corpora you will base your conclusions ...
さて is a "decorative" word and is used like "Now,.." or "So, ..". It doesn't really matter even if you omit it.
さて、始めましょうか。: So, let's get started.
そして is a coordinating conjunction and can be translated into "Then," or "After that".
空が暗くなって、そして 雨がふりだした。: The sky got dark, then it started raining.
Also, it could simply mean "and". For example,
Rather than just solving your exercise (which is not the point of this website anyway) I'll try to give you general suggestions about how to approach this kind of problem.
1. Understand the context.
What is the sentence talking about? It's an obvious question but it's important.
Exam tip: If you have no clue or it's too difficult, maybe with some kanji/...
That's right. This kind of に won't always be replaceable with と, but in your case it basically is.
The に marks a lead-in to the main point which follows.
その表情から察するに〜 Judging from the expression…
私が思うに〜 The way I think of it…
彼が言うに〜 According to him…
By comparing these sentences, "けど" appears to be softer and more common in informal speaking. "が" delivers a sense that the speaker/writer is assertive, often used by a person in a higher position or in formal ...
けど is the short form of けれども, which could be written け(れ)ど(も), because all of けれども, けれど, けども, けど are used.
けども is what, in my experience, is often used in a half formal, half informal setting. It is more refined than けど, but not quite as stiff as けれども.
How I see it, 然 has the same meaning in all cases, but with the different words and particles added after, it get different nuances. Below are my thoughts about it, but this is in no way a "scientific" explanation. Feel free to comment...
然 has the meaning of そう、その通り, "so"/"like this"/"like that"
然して is a contraction of 然うして, which is why they have very ...
けれども is a contradictory conjugation expressing something along the lines of "but" or "however." The ど/ども part in this expression is the part that expresses the contradiction. By a means of shortening one's speech (through laziness, etc.) the different forms came into usage.
The shortening is analogous to contractions in English (cannot -> can't). As such, ...
As you have already discovered, -domo attaches to the hypothetical form (仮定形). Historically, this was known as realis (已然形). The kere here is the hypothetical / realis form of -keri. -keri is an obsolete suffix (助動詞) which expresses hearsay recollection.
-keri itself may be further split apart as a contraction of -ki ari, where -ki is another obsolete ...
Some definitions on the net:
So it refers to some very explicit/direct/honest expression which may sound harsh or uninteresting. Obviously it doesn't fit in the context you provided.
As pointed out in the comment, that person was probably confusing the phrase with 元も子もない, which means "...
To break down, this とは is the quotative particle と, followed by the "topic marker" は. Probably you already know how to use と in sentences like these:
彼が学生だと聞いている。 I've heard he's a student.
明日は晴れると思う。 I think it will be fine tomorrow.
プロジェクトが成功すると信じている。 I believe the project will succeed.
When you add は after と, such は will function as the ...
I regret not writing "こわい。だから[...]" with a 句点 in my original comment.
The precise way to express it would have been: if こわい and だから are parts of separate clauses, it can be grammatical, otherwise not.
In speech, you would usually express こわい and だから belonging to different clauses by inserting a pause. With no pause between them (i.e. without breaking the ...
As you have correctly understood, し after the dictionary form of a copula/verb/i-adjective is usually used to connect two clauses. The first part often works as the reason of the second part. In English it's like "and" or "so", depending on the context.
If a sentence ends with し, it's either one of the following:
The "consequence" part is omitted because ...
As I mentioned before, those examples that I gave you, and that you're using for your question here, are from the Japanese grammar book Particles Plus by Atsuko Kawashima (Harcourt, Tokyo 1992).
About your first alternative translation:
The dog is barking, but someone is outside, right?
In the original Japanese sentence 犬がほえている is merely a justification ...
That だろう in question is not special.
(Assuming this paragraph is exactly the same as the original) I think the confusing problem is that the author used punctuation marks clumsily (with a certain intention, maybe). Read this paragraph like this:
It is a genitive marker that is connecting two noun phrases. This is the typical, most common usage of the particle. You may interpret it as "A no B" meaning "A of B" or "A's B".
In this phrase, it is (sore nanoni) no ((iikae) ya (betu no iikata)), "a change in wording or another way of saying [the expression] 'sore nanoni'".
Note though the second -no. ...
When ただ appears directly before a numeral + quantifier pair, like in the phrases ただひとり or ただひとつ, it usually has this meaning:
(二-③ in 明鏡国語辞典)
I think it corresponds to the word 'only' in your translation, as part of ただひとり. I don't think it means 'but' here. There isn't any conjunction in the original Japanese noun ...
It's on ALC. It's listed in hiragana because it's a fossilized conjunction.
とはいえ: nevertheless; that being said; be it as it may
Etymologically, this is 'quotative-と' + 'thematic-は' + '已然形 of 言う（言ふ）'. Hence literally "that being said."
働かせ can be either the continuative form of 働かせる or the imperative form of 働かす. Weblio
The 働かせ in your example is the former. You can rephrase the sentence as 「4000万円までは借金を膨らませて働かせて、5000万円になると～～」.
For more about using 連用形 as a conjunction, you could refer to:
Is there a term for using conjugating verbs such that the sentence continues with another clause?...
「人間ができている」 means "(someone) is a mature person".
So you should parse it like:
A man [who is kind and at the same time mature], [like Yoshida-san]
「吉田さんのような」 connects to 「（優しくて、かつ人間もできている）男性」.
優しくて、かつ人間もできている modifies the noun 男性. 優しくて is the て form, ie the continuous form of 優しい, "is kind, and...". かつ means "besides" "...
Your sentence basically means "It's because I have no will/desire to go back inside yet." The から is just stating that the preceding clause is a/the reason for some action/behaviour/etc. However, due to your post, we don't know what that is.
An example might be the following:
しょう君、なぜこの３時間ずっと外で遊んでいるの？ → Hey Sho, why have you been playing outside for 3 ...