15

Overview: Modern Japanese There is some brief discussion of these in the English Wikipedia, in the "taru adjectives" section of the "Adjectival noun" article here, and a bit more detail in the "taru adjectives" section of the "Japanese equivalents of adjectives" article here. Long story short, the -taru adjectives in ...


12

There are several things to consider in answering your question. An objective answer to your question would require a direct comparison between the total usage of 後で at two different points in time. This is not a trivial task and it requires more specific information, i.e. exactly which two time points to compare, what corpora you will base your conclusions ...


11

さて is a "decorative" word and is used like "Now,.." or "So, ..". It doesn't really matter even if you omit it. さて、始めましょうか。: So, let's get started. そして is a coordinating conjunction and can be translated into "Then," or "After that". 空が暗くなって、そして 雨がふりだした。: The sky got dark, then it started raining. Also, it could simply mean "and". For example, ...


11

That's right. This kind of に won't always be replaceable with と, but in your case it basically is. From デジタル大辞泉: [接助]活用語の連体形に付く。 1 あとの叙述の前置きとして続ける意を表す。…と。…ところ。 「考えてみるに庶民のための政治は当分望めそうにない」 The に marks a lead-in to the main point which follows. その表情から察するに〜 Judging from the expression… 私が思うに〜 The way I think of it… 彼が言うに〜 According to him…


10

Rather than just solving your exercise (which is not the point of this website anyway) I'll try to give you general suggestions about how to approach this kind of problem. 1. Understand the context. What is the sentence talking about? It's an obvious question but it's important. Exam tip: If you have no clue or it's too difficult, maybe with some kanji/...


9

The other person is correct on this. We use 「けれども」 as a neutral connector rather frequently for simply connecting two (mini-)statements. I have no idea what bilingual dictionaries would say about this as I almost never use them myself, but a simple search in a monolingual dictionary will reveal the definition in question. For instance, see here (一 - ➂): ...


9

けど is the short form of けれども, which could be written け(れ)ど(も), because all of けれども, けれど, けども, けど are used. けども is what, in my experience, is often used in a half formal, half informal setting. It is more refined than けど, but not quite as stiff as けれども.


8

I know し means "and", "in addition", "what's more", etc. But that is not what the 「し」 means in this context. In his context, 「し」 means the same thing as 「から」 or 「ので」. In other words, it is used to state a reason for something. 「嫌{いや}ではないです というか... どっちかっていうと ...気持{きも}ちいいし」 = 「というか... どっちかっていうと ...気持ちいいし 嫌ではないです」 「気持ちいい」 ("it feels good") is the ...


8

How I see it, 然 has the same meaning in all cases, but with the different words and particles added after, it get different nuances. Below are my thoughts about it, but this is in no way a "scientific" explanation. Feel free to comment... 然 has the meaning of そう、その通り, "so"/"like this"/"like that" 然して is a contraction of 然うして, which is why they have very ...


7

けれども is a contradictory conjugation expressing something along the lines of "but" or "however." The ど/ども part in this expression is the part that expresses the contradiction. By a means of shortening one's speech (through laziness, etc.) the different forms came into usage. The shortening is analogous to contractions in English (cannot -> can't). As such, ...


7

First, let us get the part of speech straight as it is of utmost importance here. The 「で」 that is "omitted" in the phrase 「[無関係]{むかんけい}で」 is an auxiliary verb. Specifically, it is the [連用形]{れんようけい} of the affirmation auxiliary verb 「だ」. Because it is the 連用形, the sentence can continue following it while maintaining its natural flow. In meaning, 「で」=「...


7

Some definitions on the net: 身も蓋もない 言葉が露骨すぎて、潤いも含みもない。 露骨すぎて情緒もない。 直接過ぎて、話の続けようがない。 So it refers to some very explicit/direct/honest expression which may sound harsh or uninteresting. Obviously it doesn't fit in the context you provided. As pointed out in the comment, that person was probably confusing the phrase with 元も子もない, which means "...


7

「とは」 here is not being used for nominalization. As a matter of fact, I could not think of a situation where 「とは」 could be used for pure nominalization. We are talking about 「とは」 and not 「ことは」, right? 「彼がひどいことをしたとは信じがたい。」 = "I find it hard to believe that he did such an awful thing." to borrow your own TL. In this sentence, 「とは」 expresses the ...


7

To break down, this とは is the quotative particle と, followed by the "topic marker" は. Probably you already know how to use と in sentences like these: 彼が学生だと聞いている。 I've heard he's a student. 明日は晴れると思う。 I think it will be fine tomorrow. プロジェクトが成功すると信じている。 I believe the project will succeed. When you add は after と, such は will function as the ...


7

The すると here is a 接続詞(conjunction), meaning "and", "then", "and just then", etc. See this J-J dictionary definition #1 or this J-E dictionary. どうでしょう literally means "How is ~~?", but here it's an exclamation rather than interrogative, and means "to my surprise," "Good God!", "behold!" etc. It's similar to (but probably sounds more literary than) 「...


7

As you have correctly understood, し after the dictionary form of a copula/verb/i-adjective is usually used to connect two clauses. The first part often works as the reason of the second part. In English it's like "and" or "so", depending on the context. If a sentence ends with し, it's either one of the following: The "consequence" part is omitted because ...


7

One simple approach is to use かつ, which is one of the stiffest words to say "and" in Japanese. It can be used also with i-adjectives and na-adjectives (see the link), but since most taru-adjectives are stiff and solemn, かつ works very well with them, too. Simply join the kanji parts and treat them as a long taru-adjective: 堂々かつ平然たる態度


7

のに is used in the situations below. 簡単なのにできない。 It is easy, but I cannot do that. 勉強するのに必要です。= 勉強するために必要です。 This is necessary to study. メールしてねって言ったのに。。。 I told you to email me, but... (You did NOT do so. I am angry or not satisfied.) 簡単なはずなのに。。。 This is easy, but... This implies "Why can't you do this although this is so easy!?" The last case ...


6

Basic rules are: One polite marker per main clause Beware that it's not "per sentence", since a sentence with coordinate conjunctions is deemed to have multiple top-level clauses tied with them. 〔彼は弟だ〕が〔そんなに仲が良くない〕 + [politeness] → 彼は弟ですがそんなに仲が良くないです。 (polite markers retained) × 彼は弟だがそんなに仲が良くないです。 〔〔道にいる〕男は面白いね〕 + [politeness] → 道にいる男は面白いですね。 (...


6

ならない。 「のに」も「なのに」も「んに」や「なんに」にはならない。


6

これはシンプルで _______ 純粋{じゅんすい}で魅力的{みりょくてき}なスピーチです 1) あってながら 2) あるながら 3) ありながら 4) ありながらも I know nothing about JLPT, but assuming that one is required to select the "best" answer instead of all of the "correct or feasible" answers, then I would feel that 3) would be the best or at least the most feasible answer. First of all, 1) and 2) are ...


6

"(A caused B) and that in turn caused C." "(B happened because of A) and that made C happen as a result." The easiest and safest way to express these ideas without sounding awkward and unnatural would be to not use two conjunctions like in your example sentences above -- から + から、から + ので、ので + ので, etc. Instead, one could use only a single ...


6

I think you have several options. For example... けど / けれど / けれども: 「彼は顔は怖いけれど優しい人です。」 「彼女はおとなしいけどはっきりものをいう人だ。」 が: 「彼は[強面]{こわもて}だが心は優しい。」 「彼女はおとなしいが率直な人だ。」 一方(で) / 反面、/ (と)同時に / ~が/しかし同時に: 「私は将来を楽しみにする一方で/と同時に、警戒もしている。」 「慎重に、しかし同時に素早くしなければいけません。」 ても / でも: 「彼は顔は怖くても、心は優しい。」 のに: 「彼は怖い顔をしているのに、優しいですね。」 ながら / ながらも / つつ / つつも: ...


5

That だろう in question is not special. (Assuming this paragraph is exactly the same as the original) I think the confusing problem is that the author used punctuation marks clumsily (with a certain intention, maybe). Read this paragraph like this: 私は自分では淋しくも何ともないから、彼女と私とでは、一般的にいう「不幸」という点で、どっこいどっこいのような気がする。 だが、彼女は自分のほうが私よりも「ちょっと幸せ」だと感じているのだろう。 (なぜなら、...


5

As I mentioned before, those examples that I gave you, and that you're using for your question here, are from the Japanese grammar book Particles Plus by Atsuko Kawashima (Harcourt, Tokyo 1992). About your first alternative translation: The dog is barking, but someone is outside, right? In the original Japanese sentence 犬がほえている is merely a justification ...


5

I often have the impression that though would be a good translation. I guess it's ok, though. I have something to tell you, though. Only in the last sentence it doesn't really work in English.


5

When ただ appears directly before a numeral + quantifier pair, like in the phrases ただひとり or ただひとつ, it usually has this meaning: 数量・程度などがきわめて少ないさま。たった。わずかに。「ただ一人だけ生き残る」 (二-③ in 明鏡国語辞典) I think it corresponds to the word 'only' in your translation, as part of ただひとり. I don't think it means 'but' here. There isn't any conjunction in the original Japanese noun ...


5

In this case, 「けど」≠ "but" Every single word counts in a sentence in any language, but that does not mean that every word needs to or can be translated. 「けど」、「けれど」、「が」、「だが」, etc. are frequently used as conjunctions for making a prefatory remark just before stating the main point. (To be completely honest with you, I find it difficult to believe ...


5

It's on ALC. It's listed in hiragana because it's a fossilized conjunction. とはいえ: nevertheless; that being said; be it as it may Etymologically, this is 'quotative-と' + 'thematic-は' + '已然形 of 言う(言ふ)'. Hence literally "that being said."


5

Like the Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar says: ながら expresses an action that occurs concurrently or simultaneously with another action. The action expressed by Verbながら is always secondary to the action expressed in the main clause. B: じゃ、コーヒーを飲みながら話しましょう。 Then, let's talk over a cup of coffee. C: *じゃ、話しながらコーヒーを飲みましょう。 Then, let's drink a cup of coffee ...


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