19

In some sense, you can say なら is a subtype of ば. なら is ならば in its full form, and although this word makes no sense in modern Japanese, it did in olden times. Classical ならば is but a regular inflection of なり + ば, which rightly corresponds to today's であれば (である + ば). So we can see that なら(ば) and ば don't really have differences in their meaning as conditionals, ...


15

I think it's definition #8 of the 助動詞(auxiliary verb) "た" in デジタル大辞泉: 8 (「…たらどうか」「…たらいかがでしょうか」などの形で)助言したり提案したり勧誘したりする場合に用いられる。「この件は継続審議ということにしたらいかがでしょうか」 [補説]... 仮定形「たら」は、多く「ば」を伴わないで「雨が降ったら中止だ」などと使われ、「遅いからもう帰ったら」のように文末に用いられて8の意を表す。 たら is its 仮定形(hypothetical form). When used at the end of a sentence it indicates a suggestion, recommendation or advice, ...


12

The most concise explanation would be: A なら B means "if there is an A, there is a B" A たら B means "if A is completed, B happens" なら doesn't really care about the time order. B could take place before, while, after doing A, or all time during A. It just tells "an A must be accompanied by a B". In linguistic jargon, なら makes aoristic condition. 帰るなら、...


11

誰かを邪魔するのは悪い lit. Disturbing someone is bad 誰かを邪魔しては悪い lit. If/should it disturb(s) someone, it is bad の is but a nominalizer, while ては is a conditional expression. You can translate the latter as "disturbing someone is bad" in some situations too, but the two are different in principle. Maybe a better translation is "I'm afraid of disturbing ...


11

Two common ways of translating "if and only if" use the terms 必要十分条件 ("necessary and sufficient condition") and 同値 ("equivalence"). a > b は式 (15) である為の必要十分条件である。 Equation (15) holds if and only if a > b. 式 (15) と「a>b」とは同値である。 Equation (15) is equivalent to a > b.


9

First, なきゃ is a contraction of なければ: What is the meaning of りゃ in this phrase? Meaning of 話になんない Second, the literal, primary meaning of なきゃ/なけりゃ/なければ is "if not". なければ often comes at the end of sentences, and that means the following part is omitted. What is omitted depends on the context. (Unless ...,) something bad may happen. ⇒ One has to do ... ...


9

Is there actually a difference? Yes, there is a difference: That is for sure. It would usually be unnatural for a language to have multiple words or phrases to express the exact same idea if there were absolutely no difference among them at least in one aspect. (What I do not know as an average, run-of-the-mill native Japanese-speaker, however, is ...


9

「休んだら、元気になった。」 「本を読んであげたら、弟が喜びました。」 I would interpret them as... "When I rested, I got better." "When I read a book for my little brother, he was delighted." (In these examples, the たら verb happened and caused the main verb) If I wanted to say: "If I had rested, I would have gotten better." "If I had read a book for my little brother, he would ...


8

Neither is common. In fact, 戦いませば and 戦いますれば are almost never used in modern Japanese. You have to use 戦いましたら. I sometimes hear stereotyped samurai in samurai dramas say 戦いますれば. It's indeed "if (someone) fights" said in a polite way. It's "stereotyped samurai-ish speech", but I don't know whether old people actually talked like this. People never use it ...


8

Here are the original lyrics: 夜が明けたら一番早い汽車に乗るから 切符を用意してちょうだい 私のために一枚でいいからさ 今夜でこの街とはさよならね わりといい街だったけどね The から in the first line simply means "because", and the first line works as the reason for the second line. "Because I will ride the first train when dawn breaks, please arrange a ticket (for me)." or "I will ride the first train when dawn ...


7

歩いて here simply means "by walking" just as バスで would mean "by bus".


7

From スーパー大辞林: ば ③ […] 引き続いて起こる事柄についての,きっかけを表す。…すると。 If I may add more to the quoted definition, this is a particular type of 〜ば where it denotes the chronology of a single occurrence (trigger event → following event), and says nothing about what would happen if the trigger event were to happen again. To me, this kind of 〜ば seems more common in ...


7

なくば is an older form of なければ. It's not generally used in modern Japanese (outside of perhaps a few fossilised expressions like さもなくば), but is still recognised and can be used as part of an affected style of speech. This character's speech is clearly somewhat archaic in flavour (as also evidenced by the use of そなた and the ぬ negation), so the use of なくば seems ...


7

You are thinking of なくちゃ as must, but it's really just a contraction of なくては. なくてはならない and なくてはいけない are used to mean "must", and sometimes the final verb is dropped and なくちゃ by itself is used as a very casual way to imply that something must be done. However, especially in cases where something comes after the なくちゃ, it can just mean なくては. See Jisho's ...


7

You're right. The ~~なければ here is a shortened form of ~~なければならない and means "have to~~" "should~~". And 清らかな子供たち, それを無条件で愛する教師, and 尊敬すべきこのクラス are the objects of 信じなければならない. (This is an inversion/倒置 of 清らかな子供たちと、それを無条件で愛する教師、尊敬すべきこのクラスを、信じなければ。)


7

They're so different that I've never thought those two words same. I think you're fooled by the English definition because "to the extent" can certainly cover both use cases to some extent. What they really mean are: ほど "level" → ~ほど "to the (enough) level that — / according to how much —" かぎり "limit" → ~かぎり "to the (maximum) limit that —" ...


7

「ボストンに居{い}たらなら、何で会いに来なかったんだい。」 「居たらなら」 is incorrect. At least, it is highly substandard because there is no point in using both 「たら」 and 「なら」. The correct and standard forms would be: 「居たのなら」 「居たんなら」 (informal form of above) 「居たなら」 While it is true that a very small group of native speakers use 「たらなら」 occasionally, I would personally never recommend ...


6

Edited in bold font An action in non-past tense in a なら clause is to succeed that of the main clause, and if you use it wrongly, people will misunderstand which happens before and which after. Past tense in なら clauses stands for if it's true or not. As long as you use なら correctly, たら is enough versatile to replace ~と and ~ば. You can't use たら for actions in ...


6

Present 安ければ買います Has this got two opposing meanings, or is it simple less-specific (or specific in another way) compared to English? We could express the meaning as: when cheap → buy If we turn to the English expressions, we find they both include this basic meaning: counter-factual: when cheap → buy; but alas it's not cheap unfortunately ...


6

In addition to Marc Adler's explanation: ~と言ってたら is used as subjunctive past perfect. For example: あの[時]{とき}、あなたが好きと言ってたら、[今頃]{いまごろ}私たちは[結婚]{けっこん}していただろう。 -- If I had said "I love you" at that time, we would be married now. 言ったら means "if I said(say)" or "I said ~ and then". For example: もし私がアメリカに行きたいと言ったら、あなたは[反対]{はんたい}する? -- If I said(say) "I ...


6

「シャワーを[浴]{あ}びたら[公園]{こうえん}に[行]{い}く。」 is completely correct and very natural despite what your friend said. 「たら」 is used that way all the time among us native speakers. The nuance of that sentence is that you know you will be going to the park pretty soon, but you just want to take a shower first. Nuance-wise, it is not as if taking a shower were the ...


6

Your translation attempt looks already perfect to me, but if you want to translate even more literally, you can say: そのモンスターを倒すことでどれくらいの経験値が貰えるの? こと after a verb is a nominalizer, which turns verbs into nouns, like -ing in English. で is the particle which corresponds to by or for in this case. Optionally you can also say: ...


6

「あんなことは言{い}わなかった」 would be quite acceptable in non-formal speech. It would easily be understood to mean "I would not have said ~~" by native speakers if used in the right context. You should, however, be at least aware that grammatically speaking, 「言わなかった」 is only in the simple past tense. More formally and/or academically, you can say: 「言わなかったであろう」 ...


6

This might shock you, but the sooner the better. Where did you learn that this particular 「ば」 was conditional? It is not. You would never get to understand this sentence if you blindly believed that the 「ば」 was conditional. Take a close look at the particles in bold in: 「​太刀 {たち} ​も​帯 {お} ​びておれば、​弓矢 {ゆみや} ​も​携 {たずさ} ​えておりました。 」 ...


6

quotative と The と in 言い換えてみると is not a quotative particle, but a conjunctive particle (接続助詞) meaning "When~" or "If~". 「言い換えてみると、・・・」 = "If/When you rephrase it, ..." "If/When you say it in a different way, ..." She said: 「(Original Sentence)」を言い換えてみると、→ 「(Rephrased Sentence)。」 "If you rephrase / To rephrase '[Original Sentence]': (you'll get) '[...


6

「もうし」の音変化》相手に呼びかけるときに言う語。「もし、そちらの方」出典:デジタル大辞泉(小学館) As the above, もし itself is a word like "excuse me". However, it ideomatically functions as an indicator that tells that a conditional clause follows next, which helps you comprehend what otherwise wouldn't be revealed until the last conjugation. The same thing can be said about あまり、別に、何も (adverb) for ...


5

This is not meant as a rigorous translation template, but just a simplified illustration of the conceptual differences in your example: P すれば Q → If P, Q will happen P したら Q → When P, Q will happen P すると Q → P, and Q happens 電気を消す → 暗くなる 電気を消せば〜 (If I turn off the light, it will get dark) 電気を消したら〜 (When I turn off the light, it will get dark) 電気を消すと〜 (I ...


5

Strictly speaking, the Japanese sentence: 「あのとき[右]{みぎ}に[曲]{ま}がれば、どうなっただろう。」 does not correspond to the English sentence: "If I had turned right back then, I wonder what would have happened." in the sense that, while the English sentence is perfect by any standard with its verb tense choices, the Japanese sentence sounds "only colloquially acceptable"....


5

The conditional -(r)eba has two forms: Following a consonant-stem verb, it takes the form of -eba: 行く   ik-u →  行けば   ik-eba 泳ぐ   oyog-u →  泳げば   oyog-eba 差す   sas-u →  差せば   sas-eba 放つ  hanat-u →  放てば  hanat-eba 死ぬ   sin-u →  死ねば   sin-eba 運ぶ  hakob-u →  運べば  hakob-eba 飲む   nom-u →  飲めば   nom-eba 走る  hasir-u →  走れば  hasir-eba 構う  ...


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