40

This phenomenon is called 連濁 (rendaku). The basic rules for rendaku can be found in the following question, so please take a look at it first: Rules or criteria for 連濁: Voiced or unvoiced syllables in compound words Now, in addition to the rules mentioned in the linked question, there is yet another rule (or "tendency") regarding rendaku: there are several ...


20

I think the difference is somehow similar to that between ice cream and iced cream, or popcorn and popped corn. When you combine two nouns directly, it becomes one fixed idea. 日本料理 is the name of traditionally recognized Japanese local cuisine, in the same way French cuisine, Chinese cuisine or Turkish cuisine are. It includes sushi, soba, tempura etc. ...


15

Technically speaking, kanji don't compound. The Japanese language is not made of kanji. It's made of words and and parts of words, many (but not all) of which can be written with kanji. When you put these words or parts of words together, you can often (but not always) write the resulting compound using kanji. Still, let's talk about "kanji compounds" ...


14

It's read as はつしょうぎょうし. You can never find it in dictionaries because it's actually three words: 初【はつ】: first (jisho.org) 商業誌【しょうぎょうし】: commercial book/magazine (often as opposed to dōjinshi) 商業【しょうぎょう】: commerce (jisho.org) 誌【し】: (suffix) magazine (jisho.org) 初商業誌 is typically used when a dōjin manga-ka makes a debut on a magazine available in the ...


13

As @sawa posted with the link in the comment, sometimes words have exceptional readings when in compound form. 白(しろ) is the colour white, but in certain compound words it has the reading しら. Exs: しらゆき → pure white snow しらさぎ → white heron しらが → white (grey) hair


11

Here 上がり is connected not to 床 but to 呼吸(が). 呼吸が上がる is a set phrase meaning "to be out of breath". 息が上がる and 息が切れる mean the same. Perhaps it's related to the thirteenth definition here. The masu-stem is used to connect two verbs (you know how this works because you asked about it before). 筋力トレーニングを、呼吸が上がり床に這いつくばるまで繰り返す。 (Someone) repeats the muscle ...


10

Both are different spellings of ありがとう, neither is more formal, although all three spellings may be differentiated by frequency (see below). ありがとう "thank you" may be derived from ありがたい through sound change; ありがたい is a compound of 有る and 難い. In forming compounds, the first verb conjugates to the ren'yōkei (= "masu-stem"). In compound verbs, like 有り得る or ...


9

As for your last question, please read this question and answer first: Can kanji compounds be formed arbitrarily? This question is about two-kanji compounds (熟語 in the narrow sense), but the answer there is basically true for many cases involving four kanji or more. In fact, most of the "四字熟語" you encounter, like 火力発電 or 愛国精神, are established set phrases, ...


9

First, I want to give my personal impression. (Keep in mind that I'm just learning Japanese, so I have less experiences to call on than some other people! But I think perhaps I've seen enough Japanese to give an impression worth sharing, nonetheless.) My impression is that 字引 is just another word for dictionary, but that it's quite a lot less common. The ...


9

I don't believe that sudoku exists as an actual word. Literally it does mean "single number," as it is a combination of the characters for "number" and "single." However the mathematical term for singular (versus plural) is 単数{たんすう}. According to the Wikipedia page for it, the name is a reduction of the phrase "数字は独身に限る," or basically "limited to one number....


9

人 following a place name is read as じん: 関西人, 韓国人, 宇宙人 人 following the name of a field or a social group is read as じん: 芸能人, 業界人, 社会人 人 following a number is read as にん: 三人, 五人 人 following a suru-verb is read as にん: 世話人, 商売人, 使用人, 苦労人, 通行人 人 following a na-adjective tends to be read as じん: 自由人, 有名人, 野蛮人 (exception: 貧乏人: 貧乏 is also a suru-verb, though) 人 ...


9

Well, this isn't totally a Japanese problem, but a nature of Chinese vocabulary. You said "菜 by itself mean vegetable", but more exactly speaking, 菜【さい】 means: "edible plant": 菜食, 山菜, 菜園 etc. "dish (cooked food other than grain)": 主菜, 惣菜, 前菜 etc. A single kanji is often polysemous, and the most of those kanji are only viable within compounds, being ...


8

You're probably thinking of the word menkui (面食い).


8

It is read すう in this case From Tangorin: PEEJIsuu From Weblio 読み方:ページすう


7

思{おも}い付{つ}く and 思{おも}い浮{う}かぶ are compound verbs (複合動詞{ふくごうどうし}) - [思{おも}う + 付{つ}く] and [思{おも}う + 浮{う}かぶ]. 思{おも}う implies the action that the doer works his/her mind subjectively and emotionally to image/determine/worry/hope/expect/like or love. 日本{にほん}の将来{しょうらい}を思{おも}う。"I think of the future of Japan." 問題{もんだい}ないと思{おも}う。"There should be no problem." ...


7

Yes, they're both the same. It's just an alternate spelling, think color vs. colour. Not to my knowledge.


7

If you already know the masu-stem of some verbs can act as a noun or na-/no-adjective, you can think these ず-words are almost the same except that negation is included as part of the word. That is to say, there are a few lexicalized ず-words that work as nouns or na-/no-adjectives. Just like non-negative ones, many ず-words have unpredictable meanings, and you ...


7

Most likely it is ちゃらい+くさい, meaning 'really gaudy/cheap' or 'reeking of gaudiness'. When used as a suffix, ~くさい usually adds a negative connotation to whatever precedes it. This can be used in the literal sense when there is an actual perceptible odour (酒臭い, 汗くさい), or in the figurative sense to mean 'evoking a sense of ...' (嘘くさい, 邪魔くさい).    In your ...


6

店頭 means "store front" and 店頭分 means " items which is sold in a shop".


6

Shouldn't there be の to signify that 悪 modifies 魔? No. This term was borrowed in its entirety from Chinese, as a single term. Borrowing aside, two-character compounds are generally parsed as single terms -- even those coined in Japan. It seems to be a one word and not a phrase, how do we know if a double kanji is such a single word and not two separate ...


6

[翻]{ひるがえ}す is a transitive verb of [翻]{ひるがえ}る. It seems that it shows the movement of a flag originally. This theory remains a matter of speculation. 翻る…[旗]{はた}が翻る(A flag flaps)  →ひらひらと[裏]{うら}[返]{がえ}る→ひるがえる others: [蘇]{よみがえ}る…[死者]{ししゃ}が蘇る(The dead revive)  →[黄泉]{よみ}から[帰]{かえ}る→よみがえる ※黄泉 is the land of the dead. I did not understand about [覆]{...


6

I searched for the meaning in Japanese (googled 馬面の意味) and got the following: 馬の顔のように長い顔。 From this, I feel that it is safe to assume that by 'long face' they were talking about the physical shape of the face, not the English idiom. For more information, I'd look at the following page: https://www.weblio.jp/content/%E9%A6%AC%E9%9D%A2 https://...


6

I think it might be much more helpful for you to think of "words" having "writings" rather than "characters" having "readings". For instance, as a speaker or learner or Japanese you know the "word" きょう(today) and you know the "word" あした(tomorrow). Then, you learn how to "write" or "spell" these words: 今日{きょう}、明日{あした} Then, maybe later you pick up the ...


5

What makes something 四字熟語 is not very easy to define. What you are talking really comes down to a concept known as idiomaticity in Linguistics. Having that said, 四字熟語 are generally words used as idioms (i.e. 慣用句). A 慣用句 is an expression that often utilizes more than one unrelated words to mean something completely different. For example, 画竜点睛 means ...


5

A first, I write the initial word in compound nouns ''N1'', and the second word ''N2''.   The original pitch-accent pattern of N2 governs the location of pitch-accent in compound words. If N2 is 3 morae long or longer (1) In case N2 has the accent-fall in the middle, or on the initial syllable of the word, the compound noun keeps the location of N2. [...


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