29

Just want to add to @永劫回帰's answer, which is a good one explaining the origin of the verb form 「あり」. Prose/Composition Grammar vs. Other Sets of Grammar: While a sentence like 「[保育園]{ほいくえん}がある。」 or 「保育園があります。」 is just perfect if used in prose or compositions. Those contain not a single sign of wordiness or unnaturalness in them. After all, each sentence ...


20

The old 終止形 of ある was あり. That means that you could end sentences with あり. Nowadays, あり is to be considered as the antonym of なし. 保育園あり -- There is a nursery 保育園なし -- There is no nursery


18

It's a famous book called ぎやどぺかどる, a translation of Guía de Pecadores (or "The Sinner's Guide") by Jesuit mission in Japan. It reads: きやとへかとる 巻の二 (voicing marks unused) Guia do Pecador - Book 2 (title in Medieval Portuguese) What makes it hard to read is hentaigana, now obsolete historic alternate kana, used in the line as: きや𛁻𛂶𛀙と𛃽 or ...


15

Overview: Modern Japanese There is some brief discussion of these in the English Wikipedia, in the "taru adjectives" section of the "Adjectival noun" article here, and a bit more detail in the "taru adjectives" section of the "Japanese equivalents of adjectives" article here. Long story short, the -taru adjectives in ...


14

As you correctly pointed out, many 一段 verbs have an older 四段 version. Many are formed by combining them with 在る, and 得(う)る, and 為(す)る, whose classical sentence-ending ("dictionary" or 終止形) form is only す. This book, available online, explains it very well. (Unless you are a professional linguists, the book does a good job at making sense of and shedding ...


14

This is supposed to be an iteration mark. This type of iteration mark is usually only used in vertical writing (the traditional layout for Japanese writing). It looks like a big く but is twice as tall. It also exists in Unicode, so I can try to produce it here, although it may not render nicely: や う 〱 (Wikipedia does a better job and has more ...


13

Actually 邪 has a long history of being used for its sound alone, going back at least to the Warring States Shakespeare, Zhuangzi: 天之蒼蒼、其正色邪。其遠而無所至極邪。 The sky looks very blue. Is that its real color, or is it because it is so far away and has no end? [tr. Burton Watson] Here the character 邪 is twice used simply to represent the sound of asking a question, ...


12

It is from 'classical' grammar, or rather Early Middle Japanese. -し is the 連体形 (the 'attributive' form, used to modify nouns) of the past tense marker -き. It is used to describe events the speaker knows have happened; in contrast to -けり, which is used for events the speaker has only heard about but not experienced himself. (There are a few other past tense ...


12

This looks like modern "浮かべる" but it is actually classical "浮かぶ" (四段, "to float") plus what is traditionally taught as the "り" auxiliary verb (助動詞). Etymologically, of course, it is really just "ari" attached to the ren'yokei 連用形/infinitive: /ukabi/ + /ari/ = /ukab(y)eri/, /ukab(y)eru/ adnominally (as in this case). Frellesvig calls this the "morphological ...


11

Please note that the nature of writing using Chinese script often makes it impossible to know how the word was originally pronounced. Generally the only real way of knowing is by having glosses written in kana. In Old Japanese, neither hiragana nor katakana were yet invented, though man'yoogana does indicate the pronunciation. That said, I can only find ...


11

“あり” is a 終止形 of “ある,” the same as “なし” and “ない” as mentioned by 永劫回帰. It can be compared with the English pair of words “Yes (we have)” and “No (we don’t have)”. The 漢語 version of “あり・なし” is “有・無”, both of which are commonly used. Here are some examples: 雀斑【そばかす】あり – having freckles 欠点【けってん】あり(の商品) – (a product) with a flaw 曰【いわく】あり – have something with ...


11

That ん isn't a shortening of ぬ, it's a shortening of the auxiliary む. According to Classical Japanese rules, the negative ~ぬ is the 連体形 of ~ず. This means it is used to modify nouns. In particular, you cannot end a sentence with it, so that means that this ん cannot be an abbreviation of ~ぬ. In modern Japanese, the distinction between 連体形 and 終止形 has been ...


11

This たれ is the realis-form (已然形) of たり, which is an auxiliary in classical/archaic Japanese. This たり is like ている in modern Japanese, and 已然形 + ば means "because". So できたれば translates to できているから in modern Japanese. (Note that this れば is not "if"; see the last link below for details.) Related: Please help me understand this たる? Meaning of る ...


10

In modern Japanese, 邂逅 is a する-verb (which are also known as サ変), but in classical-esque Japanese the する becomes す (see 愛する vs 愛す etc). The し comes from the 連体形 (form used to connect to nouns such as 瘴炎) of the auxiliary particle き, which is a particle that is well known for having crazy conjugation patterns. き is used similarly to how た is used in modern ...


9

There is no clear-cut etymological explanation, but some think there is a connection. In A History of the Japanese Language (2010), Frellesvig says: The suffixes which attach to the infinitive [i.e. renyokei] are [...] transparently agglutinating and their use as suffixes seems to be younger [than suffixes attaching to the mizenkei, which Frellesvig argues ...


9

"Does anyone know what to call the outdated, high form of language which will say for example "ならぬ" rather than "ならない" or more accurately "だめだ"?" We call it 「[文語体]{ぶんごたい}」 or 「文語[調]{ちょう}」("Literary style") as opposed to 「[口語体]{こうごたい}」 or 「口語調」 ("Colloquial style"). "Specifically, I would like to know if there is a name for the dialect used by Kuchiki ...


9

The difference is small, but お疲れさまです is a generic greeting used in business settings, whereas お疲れさまでした explicitly states someone's work is over for today. In everyday exchanges, whichever is fine, but お疲れ様です may sound relatively a little bit more friendly/casual, and お疲れさまでした may sound a little bit more polite/formal. If you want to clearly express a feeling ...


8

At least grammatically speaking, 悲しまず is not an explicit imperative but a plain negative form of 悲しむ ("not to grieve", "not to be sad"). It's simply 悲しまない in modern Japanese. As usual, this sentence lacks an explicit subject like "I" or "you". So the problem is the nature of this document itself. Why, and to whom, did ...


7

I suspect this might be an example of poetic license or even contraction. Note that all of the 思ふ instances above follow on another mora from the お行, leaving open the possibility that をしと思{おも}ふ, for example, was actually read as をしともふ, thus producing the expected mora count. I note too that 思う has a pitch pattern of おもう{LHL}, making the お effectively ...


7

Neither is common. In fact, 戦いませば and 戦いますれば are almost never used in modern Japanese. You have to use 戦いましたら. I sometimes hear stereotyped samurai in samurai dramas say 戦いますれば. It's indeed "if (someone) fights" said in a polite way. It's "stereotyped samurai-ish speech", but I don't know whether old people actually talked like this. People never use it ...


7

In late middle Japanese, the actual class of い-adjectives was in fact subdivided into 2 classes, namely ク-adjectives and シク-adjectives. There is remnant of those adjectives even now, though there are mainly to be found in novels or songs in order to add a touch of old. Here, we have 懐かしき, it is the old 連体形 (the base you should use to modify a noun or clause)...


7

The words and phrases vary by time, by occasion, and even by class. Just top of the mind, even the simplest words like “I” and “you” can be expressed in dozens of different ways in old-style Japanese, according to the status of the speaker, situations, by profession, by sex, and by time. For instance in Edo-era “I” was expressed as [俺]{おれ}、[儂]{わし}、[手前]{てまえ}、...


7

1. Why is the verb 狭{せば}む so rare/weird? As user naruto said in the comments, the reason you don't see 狭{せば}む much in modern Japanese (and that your input method can't handle it) is that this is a Classical Japanese (bungo 文語) verb, of the shimo-nidan conjugation; it inflects as 狭め(ぬ), 狭め(て), 狭む(ぞ), 狭むる(人), 狭むれ(ど), 狭めよ(!). (If you want to learn more, you ...


7

The basic grammar The し ending on adjectives is the Classical Japanese 終止形【しゅうしけい】 or "terminal form", i.e. the conjugation to use when the word comes at the end of a sentence. The Classical Japanese 連体形【れんたいけい】 or "attributive form" (the conjugation to use when modifying a noun or other substantive) is き. For modern adjective 広い, the 終止形 and 連体形 are the ...


7

Questions and Answers I'll answer your questions in order. Line 1: 句 looks like it is read as ば (ba), despite 句 having readings of く (ku), こう (kō) or すく (suku). Any thoughts? The kanji are used here as a kind of 熟字訓【じゅくじくん】 for the word nakaba, commonly spelled in the modern language as 半ば. Even then, I'd expect to see 中旬 instead; I wonder if the author ...


7

西周金曶壺蓋集成9728今楷  「手{しゅ}」is a picture of a hand. It has variants 「扌」(normally written on the left) 「⿻一十」(bottom component of「奉」) 「手・扌・⿻一十」normally contributes one of two meanings: Something to do with a hand (anatomy), e.g.: 掌 (palm of hand) 拳 (fist) 指 (finger) Verbs which (probably) involve hands. There's an endless list of these: 損 (to harm) 撃 (to ...


7

First of all, the meaning of 「とある」 with its fine nuances included would be "a tidbit of", "of sorts", etc. I specifically wanted to state that before anything because by blindly believing the common "bilingual dictionary" definitions of 「とある」, which are "some" and "certain", one could unconsciously seek an etymological explanation that would seem valid for ...


7

One simple approach is to use かつ, which is one of the stiffest words to say "and" in Japanese. It can be used also with i-adjectives and na-adjectives (see the link), but since most taru-adjectives are stiff and solemn, かつ works very well with them, too. Simply join the kanji parts and treat them as a long taru-adjective: 堂々かつ平然たる態度


6

Conventions: I will use 漢字 to represent Chinese words, and かな or [振り仮名]{ふりがな} to represent Japanese words. なす/なる and “to make” 為 is related to (and might have been the same as) 偽, “to forge”. Both なす and なる happens to translate to “to make” in Chinese. When you make “an object” you produce it. Sometimes the active and passive distinction in Chinese is not so ...


6

Using ハ for particle "wa" was a part of their proper style to write official documents or letters at that time. The writing style of 日米和親条約 in your image is [候文]{そうろう・ぶん}, which was a formal writing style during the Edo period. If you would read other 候文 documents or letters written in the Edo period, you would notice that ハ is almost always used ...


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