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What form is あり?

The old 終止形 of ある was あり. That means that you could end sentences with あり. Nowadays, あり is to be considered as the antonym of なし. 保育園あり -- There is a nursery 保育園なし -- There is no nursery
永劫回帰's user avatar
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18 votes
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Recognizing old Japanese handwriting

It's a famous book called ぎやどぺかどる, a translation of Guía de Pecadores (or "The Sinner's Guide") by Jesuit mission in Japan. It reads: きやとへかとる 巻の二 (voicing marks unused) Guia do Pecador - Book 2 (...
broccoli forest's user avatar
17 votes
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How do you join たる-adjectives?

Overview: Modern Japanese There is some brief discussion of these in the English Wikipedia, in the "taru adjectives" section of the "Adjectival noun" article here, and a bit more ...
Eiríkr Útlendi's user avatar
14 votes
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What does 「/\」 mean in this sentence?

This is supposed to be an iteration mark. This type of iteration mark is usually only used in vertical writing (the traditional layout for Japanese writing). It looks like a big く but is twice as ...
Earthliŋ's user avatar
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13 votes
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Verb ending in -ん with positive meaning?

That ん isn't a shortening of ぬ, it's a shortening of the auxiliary む. According to Classical Japanese rules, the negative ~ぬ is the 連体形 of ~ず. This means it is used to modify nouns. In particular, ...
Ringil's user avatar
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12 votes
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What is the meaning of "できたれば"?

This たれ is the realis-form (已然形) of たり, which is an auxiliary in classical/archaic Japanese. This たり is like ている in modern Japanese, and 已然形 + ば means "because". So できたれば translates to ...
naruto's user avatar
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11 votes

What form is あり?

“あり” is a 終止形 of “ある,” the same as “なし” and “ない” as mentioned by 永劫回帰. It can be compared with the English pair of words “Yes (we have)” and “No (we don’t have)”. The 漢語 version of “あり・なし” is “有・無”, ...
Yoichi Oishi's user avatar
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10 votes
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邂逅せし瘴炎 what does the せし part mean?

In modern Japanese, 邂逅 is a する-verb (which are also known as サ変), but in classical-esque Japanese the する becomes す (see 愛する vs 愛す etc). The し comes from the 連体形 (form used to connect to nouns such as ...
Ringil's user avatar
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9 votes
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Difference お疲れ様です vs お疲れ様でした while leaving from office?

The difference is small, but お疲れさまです is a generic greeting used in business settings, whereas お疲れさまでした explicitly states someone's work is over for today. In everyday exchanges, whichever is fine, but ...
naruto's user avatar
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8 votes

How do Japanese make language sound old (e. g. in historical dramas)?

The words and phrases vary by time, by occasion, and even by class. Just top of the mind, even the simplest words like “I” and “you” can be expressed in dozens of different ways in old-style Japanese, ...
Yoichi Oishi's user avatar
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8 votes
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Questions on an 1840's text: Battle at Yamaki Palace 治承四年八月中句右兵衞佐頼朝公

Questions and Answers I'll answer your questions in order. Line 1: 句 looks like it is read as ば (ba), despite 句 having readings of く (ku), こう (kō) or すく (suku). Any thoughts? The kanji are used here ...
Eiríkr Útlendi's user avatar
8 votes
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using 未然形 and 已然形 with conditional ば

未然形 + ば is ~たら/なら/(れ)ば, and 已然形 + ば is ~(な)ので/~(だ)から in modern Japanese. The difference between 死なば and 死ぬれば is the difference between "if I (will) die" and "since I (will) die". ...
naruto's user avatar
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8 votes
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The grammar of the Dokkōdō by Miyamoto Musashi

At least grammatically speaking, 悲しまず is not an explicit imperative but a plain negative form of 悲しむ ("not to grieve", "not to be sad"). It's simply 悲しまない in modern Japanese. As ...
naruto's user avatar
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8 votes
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For this sentence 本日は晴天なりといったとする, could I replace なり to です, if not, why?

It's very misleading to say なり is a literary or formal version of だ. It is an obsolete copula that is no longer actively used in Japanese. You'll never come across it in contemporary Japanese, but you ...
naruto's user avatar
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7 votes
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Two different polite forms of the conditional conjugation

Neither is common. In fact, 戦いませば and 戦いますれば are almost never used in modern Japanese. You have to use 戦いましたら. I sometimes hear stereotyped samurai in samurai dramas say 戦いますれば. It's indeed "if (...
naruto's user avatar
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7 votes
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Name of レ点 in 漢文

The レ点 means first read the next character (that is the character below since it was written from top to bottom at that time) then read the previous character. Ex: 帰ル(レ点)国ニ should read 国に帰る. Before, ...
永劫回帰's user avatar
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7 votes
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What is the ki used for in this sentence? 懐かし き 故郷

In late middle Japanese, the actual class of い-adjectives was in fact subdivided into 2 classes, namely ク-adjectives and シク-adjectives. There is remnant of those adjectives even now, though there are ...
永劫回帰's user avatar
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7 votes
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Please help me understand this たる?

They are the same as 焼いた人器 and いた時, respectively, but said in an archaic fashion. Several things happening here. First, ある is used instead of いる because ある could safely be used with animate objects ...
naruto's user avatar
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7 votes
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Similarity between 挟む and 狭む

1. Why is the verb 狭{せば}む so rare/weird? As user naruto said in the comments, the reason you don't see 狭{せば}む much in modern Japanese (and that your input method can't handle it) is that this is a ...
melissa_boiko's user avatar
7 votes
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I know that the word 広し means 広い, but which rule or grammar is included?

The basic grammar The し ending on adjectives is the Classical Japanese 終止形【しゅうしけい】 or "terminal form", i.e. the conjugation to use when the word comes at the end of a sentence. The Classical ...
Eiríkr Útlendi's user avatar
7 votes
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What is the meaning of the radical 手 as a part of character?

西周金曶壺蓋集成9728今楷  「手{しゅ}」is a picture of a hand. It has variants 「扌」(normally written on the left) 「⿻一十」(bottom component of「奉」) 「手・扌・⿻一十」normally contributes one of two meanings: Something to do ...
dROOOze's user avatar
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7 votes

How do you join たる-adjectives?

One simple approach is to use かつ, which is one of the stiffest words to say "and" in Japanese. It can be used also with i-adjectives and na-adjectives (see the link), but since most taru-...
naruto's user avatar
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7 votes

How does 形容詞+かる work in Classical Japanese?

Your main question How does 形容詞+かる work in Classical Japanese? In basic terms, the conjugation charts in the Japanese Wikipedia article at https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/形容詞#古典日本語の形容詞の活用 are quite ...
Eiríkr Útlendi's user avatar
6 votes
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Is there a reason why the passive and the potential form are identical (at least for える/いる verbs)?

Etymologically, various usages of れる/られる derived from one base meaning, "without someone's will". In modern Japanese, れる/られる is still sometimes used in this sense (known as 自発【じはつ】 or "...
naruto's user avatar
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6 votes

What does らん in 「強からん事を祈る」 mean?

Adding onto Ringil's post. The crux of the question what I do not understand is, what kind of form is 「強から」. To understand this, we need to look more deeply into how い adjectives can be inflected ...
Eiríkr Útlendi's user avatar
6 votes
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拈得せん in a writing by Genkaku

As you said, it's from a Buddhist (zen) verse 証道歌 which is attributed to 玄覚. As most of zen works are, it's written in colloquial Middle Chinese, not using the usual vocabulary of Classical Chinese or ...
broccoli forest's user avatar
6 votes

Meaning of もてり and use of が

This is not the potential form of 持つ, but the 已然形 of 持つ plus the 終止形 of the 助動詞 り. In this case, the combination corresponds to modern Japanese 持っている.
Nanigashi's user avatar
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