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19

They are both slightly different simplifications of the traditional Chinese character which is 變. 变 is the simplified Chinese and 変 the shinjitai, i.e. the Japanese simplification. Often the simplifications are the same, but it also often happens that traditional Chinese characters have slightly different simplifications in Chinese and Japanese, for example ...


16

Just from personal experience (purely anecdotal), I came across a few Chinese people who all used their original characters hanzi pretty regularly in work scenarios, normally without furigana (name badges, shift schedules, etc). Anybody who sees your name written thus should know from your surname that you are not Japanese, they will likely ask you how to ...


15

What is the etymology of the phrase 隴を得て蜀を望む? We can reorder the characters to get 得隴望蜀, which is a Chinese-language yojijukugo. This phrase may reference a few unrelated historical events. The earliest such event is about Emperor Guangwu of Han reunifying the Gansu region into Han territory then turning his sights on Sichuan (see Emperor Guangwu of Han's ...


12

Yes, the kana に is derived from the Chinese character ([漢字]{かんじ}, kanji) 仁. See also the English Wiktionary page and the Japanese Wikipedia page, among other references. All kana derived from kanji. In fact, the word kana originally meant something like "provisional / borrowed + name / label" (from older kari na or 仮り名), in reference to the way ...


11

Henshall writes on p.130 of A Guide to Remembering Japanese Characters: 艹 is plant 9. 央 is center 429 q.v., here acting phonetically to express bloom and possibly lending an idea of blocked off at the head from its assumed original meaning of person yoked at the neck. 426 originally meant a flower that blossomed but lacked seed, such a flower being ...


11

Short answer: probably yes, but we don't know a lot about it. We don't have enough documentation about the earliest stages of Japanese to be sure, but the consensus is that a bunch of the oldest words must have come from Chinese and other languages. It would be hard not to, since they were in contact all the time, and the original Japanese speakers came ...


10

No, 曖昧 on its own does not mean 曖昧な関係 in Japanese. The following article written in Japanese explains 曖昧 has broader meanings in Chinese. 【中国語】曖昧 àimèi この中国語の「曖昧」は、日本語より意味が広くて、日本語と同じ意味のほかに、まず「怪しい、胡散臭い、疑わしい」という意味があります。 最近は特に「友達以上、恋人未満」的な男女関係を表す語としてよく使われています。上の楊丞琳の曲名も、この意味の「曖昧」です。 例えば、傍からみていると、二人の言動は恋人同士のように見えるけど、実のところはそうではない関係。或いは、...


10

Using 2,136 as a reference number (total number of Jōyō kanji) There are 3,079 unique* characters which form the 2,136 most frequent Mainland Chinese + Taiwan Chinese characters. 1,567 Jōyō Kanji are part of these 3,079 characters, while 569 are not*. There are 1,023 characters in the 2,136 Mainland Chinese most frequent characters that are not part of ...


10

It's like this: 中国人: "a person with Chinese nationality" 漢人: "a person from the Han dynasty" "a person of Han (Chinese) ethnicity" 華人: "a person of ethnically Han ancestry living outside of China" 唐人: "a person from the Tang dynasty" "a Seric; a Cathayan" The word 中国人 (#1) is by far the most common word corresponds to English Chinese, that is what most ...


10

As far as Japanese is concerned, loanwords (外来語) usually refer to words brought into Japan from countries other than China and written in katakana. But strictly speaking, it depends on how you define loanwords. Many on-yomi Sino-Japanese words had been around even before Japanese people learned how to write their own native words, so IMHO it doesn't make ...


9

It's a question somehow unanswered for a fairly long time, while it doesn't seem to be too complicated to answer. If I am reading a Chinese text to a Japanese audience, how can I know which reading to use for each character? Of the 音読み, there can be 呉音, 漢音, and 唐音 to choose from. There are two major types of situation to read Classical Chinese text in ...


8

Why do these people think that there is some Chinese element to these books? Because 「语」「测」「试」 are Simplified Chinese. We use 「語」「測」「試」(or 「試験」 for 「测试」 and 「文法」 for 「语法」) in Japanese.


8

1. Why is the verb 狭{せば}む so rare/weird? As user naruto said in the comments, the reason you don't see 狭{せば}む much in modern Japanese (and that your input method can't handle it) is that this is a Classical Japanese (bungo 文語) verb, of the shimo-nidan conjugation; it inflects as 狭め(ぬ), 狭め(て), 狭む(ぞ), 狭むる(人), 狭むれ(ど), 狭めよ(!). (If you want to learn more, you ...


7

It is not a good idea to learn Japanese Kanji reading Chinese newspapers. Of course, a majority of Chinese characters used both in China and Japan have same or similar meanings, however, the grammar and syntax of Chinese are completely different from those of Japanese and I don't see any benefit coming out of reading Chinese newspapers unless you want to get ...


7

My dictionary 漢字源 lists as meanings {名} はな。はなぶさ。中央がくぼみ、芯を含んだような形をしたはな。→ 華 {形・名} うるわしい。すぐれている。ひいでた者。「英雄」「英明」。 & 4. [omitted] The literal meaning being related to a flower, the extended meaning being "lovely" or "outstanding" or "someone skillful". The words 英雄 "hero" and 英明 "intelligent" are listed under this extended meaning.


7

This question could probably be answered on different levels, but here is what you might want to know for starters because that is what I, an average Japanese-speaker, know. The key word here is phonetics, not orthography. [大和言葉]{やまとことば} are the words that existed when Japanese was only a spoken language. Sounds were everything we had to express ...


7

In the dictionary 字通【じつう】 (1996), we find: [3] よく温熟する、ならう、たずねる。 In addition, the dictionary 類聚名義抄【るいじゅみょうぎしょう】 (approx. 12th century) lists* the following meanings for 温: アタゝム・タツヌ・ウルフ・ツゝム・シル・アタゝカナリ・ウツクシ・ヤハラカナリ 尋【たず】ねる (or rather, タツヌ) is the second listed. Moving on now to Chinese sources, in 漢典, it is written: (2) 复习 [review] 温故而知新。——《礼记·中庸》...


7

Yes, 黒 is the 新字体{しんじたい} (simplified) form of 黑, which took the two dots at the top and turned them into a straight line. The same simplification can be seen in 曾 -> 曽. This was all part of the 1945 simplification scheme in Japanese. 黑 is still used in chinese though, both simplified and traditional, and has the exact same meaning of "black", as you pointed ...


7

The レ点 means first read the next character (that is the character below since it was written from top to bottom at that time) then read the previous character. Ex: 帰ル(レ点)国ニ should read 国に帰る. Before, the レ点 was called [雁金点]{かりがねてん} because it looks like a goose which is flying (雁{かり}が飛ぶ姿) . You can see that first the symbol is going down then going up. That ...


7

According to the Wiktionary entry, the 母 portion is purely phonetic -- that is, it has to do with the [ancient] Chinese pronunciation.


7

The answer is no. Some na-adjectives are from Western languages (e.g., スマートな, アバンギャルドな) and some are from native Japanese words (e.g., 朗らかな, 静かな). As an aside, there are also a few i-adjectives coined from English (e.g., エモい, エロい, ラグい), although they are mostly slang. As for spelling, it is true that the dictionary forms of most na-adjectives are written in ...


7

There is always trade-off, as you said. Thus naturally we have both approaches, depending on what policy and objective you have. Your #1 is called 訓読 ("interpretative reading") in Japanese, and considered normal. As it is a form of literal translation, you can relatively easily get the meaning, at the cost of original prosody. Fortunately, Japanese verse ...


7

According to Morohashi (大漢和辞典), the original Literary Sinitic meaning of the compound word, 勉強 [m-jenX g-jangX] are indeed different: "1. Strive with all effort. 2. Put effort in study. 3. Do business with small profit margin. 4. Section from the book 顔氏家訓. 5. (modern Mandarin) force; compel." In fact, definitions like this are closer to the modern Japanese ...


7

On'yomi and Chinese: how sounds correlate In almost* any discussion of kanji usage in Japanese, do not use the Mandarin pronunciations as any kind of guide to the Japanese pronunciations. (* The exception is any discussion of recent borrowings from Mandarin, like [你好]{ニーハオ}.) Much as Japanese has changed a lot in the last 1500+ years, so too has Chinese ...


6

Since I have no knowledge of the subject, I am quoting from an academic paper: 日本・中国・台湾・香港の基礎漢字1945字字体一覧表の作成に向けて (香港中文大学日本研究学科、Senior Instructor、兒島慶治) According to the author of this paper, the number is 1,165. (See page 4.) Note that there were 1,945 [常用漢字]{じょうようかんじ} when this paper was written. Currently, that number has increased to 2,136. So, the ...


6

The kanjis at the bottom line of the front page (日本语……) are Chinese kanjis. These kanjis are not used in Japanese except 日本, 能力 and 法. One line above is an English phrase "JLPT Grammar." So they judged that the book is for English and Chinese speakers. But the other part of the front page seems to be valid Japanese phrases.


6

What is this kind of variation called? Like is there a name for it? In English they are called "variant (character)", in Japanese 異体字 itaiji. There are different types of variants, often though they come in pairs, one being a "traditional" character (旧字体 kyūjitai) and another a "simplified" character (新字体 shinjitai). This is for variants used in ...


6

For ease of comparison, most Japanese Kanji text in this answer will be rendered in Kyūjitai, which are almost 100% identical to Korean Hanja. Short answer No, Korean mixed script (「[國漢文混用]{국한문혼용}」, 漢字ハングル混じり文) does not employ the equivalent of Japanese kun'yomi (「[訓讀]{훈독}」, hun-dok). Longer answer They do exist, but you wouldn't come across any of ...


6

「每{まい}」(Baxter-Sagart OC: /*mˤəʔ/; Shinjitai:「毎」) was originally a picture of a woman「女」wearing a headdress, indicating the meaning married woman > adult woman, mother.「女」was later phoneticised into「母{も}」(/*məʔ/). The meaning married/adult woman is no longer associated with the character「每」, and the modern meaning of「每」(each, every) is a phonetic loan. ...


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